Politics and Military Advice: Lessons from the Campaign in Greece 1941


By Squadron Leader David Stubbs

This paper suggests that the British decision to become involved in Greece, with a token RAF force in November 1940, helped set in train a series of events which ultimately led to the disastrous joint and coalition venture, where the military desire to satisfy the political appetite for grand strategy caused some commanders to ignore their own assessments that intervention was likely to fail without adequate air support. The paper will show how political pressure was applied to the military commanders and how their objections were gradually eroded so that they began to ignore their own rational analysis and come to believe that the impossible was possible, with ruinous consequences in terms of men and equipment. Συνέχεια

Battle of Greece – Operation Marita


 The Battle of Greece (also known as Operation Marita, German: Unternehmen Marita) was a World War II battle that occurred on the Greek mainland and in southern Albania. The battle was fought between the Allied (Greece and the British Commonwealth) and Axis (Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Bulgaria) forces. With the Battle of Crete and several naval actions, the Battle of Greece is considered part of the wider Aegean component of the Balkans Campaign of World War II.

The Battle of Greece is generally regarded as a continuation of the Greco-Italian War, which began when Italian troops invaded Greece on October 28, 1940. Within weeks the Italians were driven from Greece and Greek forces pushed on to occupy much of southern Albania. In March 1941, a major Italian counterattack failed, and Germany was forced to come to the aid of its ally. Operation Marita began on April 6, 1941, with German troops invading Greece through Bulgaria in an effort to secure its southern flank. The combined Greek and British forces fought back with great tenacity, but were vastly outnumbered and outgunned, and finally collapsed. Athens fell on April 27. However, the British Commonwealth managed to evacuate about 50,000 troops. The Greek campaign ended in a quick and complete German victory with the fall of Kalamata in the Peloponnese; it was over within twenty-four days. Nevertheless, both German and Allied officials have expressed their admiration for the strong resistance of the Greek soldiers. Συνέχεια

Επιχείρηση ΕΡΜΗΣ (αεραπόβαση στην Κρήτη)


H αερομεταφερόμενη επίθεση των Γερμανών για την κατάληψη της Κρήτης απετέλεσε ακρογωνιαίο λίθο για την μελλοντική ανάπτυξη και διαμόρφωση των δυνάμεων αλεξιπτωτιστών έως και σήμερα. Το αλεξίπτωτο ως υλικό ήταν  γνωστό από τον A’ Παγκόσμιο Πόλεμο στις διάφορες στρατιωτικές υπηρεσίες, οι οποίες το Θεωρούσαν μόνον ως ένα διασωστικό μέσο και μάλιστα κακής υπόληψης, καθώς κάποιοι θεωρούσαν δειλία την εγκατάλειψη ενός φλεγόμενου αεροσκάφους! Σε κάποια ανήσυχα και διορατικά μυαλά, ωστόσο, απετέλεσε την  αφορμή για την εκπόνηση νέων στρατηγικών και τακτικών μάχης, οι οποίες σήμερα, στην πλέον εξελιγμένη μορφή τους, έχουν προκαλέσει μια πλήρη μεταβολή του σύγχρονου πεδίου μάχης, των αρχών και των μηχανισμών διεξαγωγής του πολέμου. Συνέχεια

Εκθεση Δράσης Υπηρεσίας YVONNE (FORCE133)


Υ Π Η Ρ Ε Σ Ι Α “Y V O N N E” (F O R C E 1 3 3)

ΕΚΘΕΣΙΣ ΕΠΙ ΤΗΣ ΔΡΑΣΕΩΣ ΤΗΣ ΥΠΗΡΕΣΙΑΣ
ΑΠΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΙΟΥΝΙΟΥ 1944 ΜΕΧΡΙ ΤΗΣ
ΑΠΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΩΣΕΩΣ (12 ΟΚΤΩΒΡΙΟΥ 1944)

Ε Κ Θ Ε Σ Ι Σ
επί των εργασιών της Υπηρεσίας “Y V O N N E” (F O R C E 1 3 3).
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Περί τας 20 Ιουνίου 1944 αφίχθη εις Αθήνας εκ Μέσης Ανατολής ο Αρχηγός της Υπηρεσίας κ. Ιωάννης Πελτέκης, ίνα ανασυγκροτήση την υπηρεσίαν, η οποίαν είχεν υποστή μεγάλον κλονισμόν συνεπεία των συλλήψεων Μαρτίου και Απριλίου. Ειδικώς, οι τότε διευθύνοντες την Υπηρεσίαν κκ. Ερρίκος Μοάτσος, και Άλκης Δελμούζος εκυκλοφόρουν μετά δυσκολίας, καθ’ όσον οι Γερμανοί είχαν ενδείξεις διά του ποιοι ήσαν. Σκοπός του κ. Ι. Πελτέκη ήτο να αποστείλη εις Μέσην Ανατολήν όσους εκ της υπηρεσίας ήτο δυνατό να υποψιάζονται οι Γερμανοί. Εν τω μεταξύ, όμως, συνελλήφθη ο Α. Δελμούζος και ούτως η ανάγκη διαφυγής των παλαιών συνεργατών και η αντικατάστασις τούτων, ενεφανίσθη επιτακτικωτέρα. Προς τον σκοπόν τούτον ο κ. Ι.Πελτέκης απετάθη προς τον Κωνσταντίνο Μπενάκην, ο οποίος συνειργάζετο, από τας αρχάς ήδη του μηνός, με την Υπηρεσίας και με τον Γεώργιο Παππάν, αρχηγόν της εθνικιστικής οργανώσεως “Εθνική Δράσις”, οίτινες και απεδέχθησαν να αναλάβουν την διοίκησιν και ανασυγκρότησιν της Υπηρεσίας. Ίνα σχηματισθή τριμελής διοίκηση, ο κ. Πελτέκης απετάθη και προς τρίτον πρόσωπον, τούτο όμως δεν εδεχθη. Η στιγμή ήτο ομολογούμενως δύσκολος, διότι και το ηθικόν εις την Υπηρεσίαν ήτο χαμηλόν, λόγω των πολλών και συνεχών συλλήψεων, και διότι είχαν ενταθή τα μέτρα των Γερμανών και αι δυσχέριαι επικοινωνίας, εξ άλλου δε και τα τεχνικά μέσα, δι’ ων απεφεύγετο υπό των μυστικών υπηρεσιών η εκ μέρους του εχθρού παρακολούθησίς των, βαθμιαίως εξέλειπον. Συνέχεια

Καταβολή αποζημιώσεως σε αιχμαλώτους, ΥΠΕΘΑ/ΔΝΣΗ ΕΠΗΜΕΛΗΤΕΙΑΣ/ΤΜ2/1α ΓΡ./ΑΠ158497/29-10-1941


ΥΠΟΥΡΓΕΙΟΝ ΕΘΝΙΚΗΣ ΑΜΥΝΗΣ
Δ/ΣΙΣ ΕΠΙΜ/ΤΕΙΑΣ
ΤΜΗΜΑ ΙΙΙ

ΓΡΑΦΕΙΟΝ Ια.
Αριθ.Πρωτ.158497

ΔΙΑΤΑΓΗ

Έχοντες υπ’ όψει διάταξιν λαμβανομένου Νομοθετικού μέτρου,

 Ε γ κ ρ ί ν ο μ ε ν,

 εν συνεχεία και προς τας υπ’ αριθμ. 148675/30-9-41 και 148884/10-10-41 Διαταγάς ημών, την καταβολήν εφ’ άπαξ αποζημιώσεως δραχμ. δέκα χιλιάδων (10.000), εις άπαντας τους κρατηθέντας αιχμαλώτους εν τω εξωτερικώ και εν Κρήτη αξιωματικούς και Ανθ/στάς, μονίμους και εφέδρους γενικώς.
Η εφ’ άπαξ αύτη αποζημίωσις θα καταβληθή εις τους δικαιούχους αξιωματικούς και ανθυπασπιστάς μόνον παρά της Α΄ Διαχ/σεως Υ.Ε.Α. επί τη προσαγωγή των κάτωθι δικαιολογητικών: Συνέχεια

Αρθρο Εφημερίδας Χανίων, 25-9-1941


ΠΩΣ ΓΙΝΕΤΑΙ Η ΚΡΗΤΗ ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΑ
Η Γερμανία έσωσε την Κρήτη από του να μεταβληθή εις δευτέραν Κύπρον. – Το τραγικόν σφάλμα των ελευθέρων σκοπευτών. – Η έννοια της διαταγής περί αμνηστείας του Γερμανικού Στρατιωτικού Διοικητού.

 Εις το κύριον άρθρον μας της 17ης τρέχοντος μηνός, υπό τον τίτλον (προς ειρήνευσιν της Νήσου Κρήτης) εσχολιάσαμεν την διαταγήν του Στρατιωτικού Διοικητού Κρήτης. Εις το άρθρον μας αυτό ανεγράφεται η φράσις, ότι η συμμετοχή των Κρητών εις τον αγώνα εναντίον του Γερμανικού Στρατού ηδύνατο να εξηγηθή, όταν λάβη τις υπ’ όψιν την ιστορικήν εξέλιξιν της Κρήτης η οποία επί αιώνας ηγωνίσθη διά την ελευθερίαν της, και τούτο διότι η Αγγλική Προπαγάνδα είχε κατορθώση να εμπνεύση αισθήματα μίσους και εχθρότητος εναντίον της Γερμανίας εις μεγάλα τμήματα του πληθυσμού της Νήσου, αφού προηγουμένως εξεμεταλλεύθη με δεξιοτεχνία την αγάπην των Κρητών προς την ελευθερίαν, πείσασα ούτω αυτούς ότι η νίκη της Αγγλίας σημαίνει την ελευθερίαν ενώ η νίκη της Γερμανίας την υποδούλωσιν της Κρήτης. Συνέχεια

Εκθεση Βουλγαρικών σφαγών το Σεπτέμβριο 1941 στη Δράμα


Εν Δράμα τη 26-8/βρίου 1954
ΠΡΟΣ
Το Γενικόν Επιτελείον Στρατού
Δ/σιν Ιστορίας Στρατού
Τμήμα ΙΙ
Αθήναις
Έκθεσις επί γενομένων υπό των Βουλγάρων Σφαγών κατά Σ/βριον του έτους 1941.

Λαμβάνομεν την τιμήν εις εκτέλεσιν της υπ’ αριθ. 34/39/9542/ 24-9-54 δ/γής υμών να υποβάλωμεν συνημμένως το υπό του Δήμου ημών εγκριθέν κατά το έτος 1945 βιβλίον «Τραγωδίαν της Δράμας» εμφαίνον άπαντα τα στοιχεία διά τας υπό των Βουλγάρων διαπραχθείσας σφαγάς κατά Σ/βριον του έτους 1941 εις την περιοχήν του Δήμου ημών εις ο συμπεριλαμβάνονται κατά το δυνατόν άπαντα τα λαβόντα χώραν γεγονότα κατά τας σφαγάς.
Ωσαύτως να συνυποβάλωμεν και κατάστασιν των κατά το διάστημα τούτο σφαγιασθέντων, φονευθέντων και θανόντων εξ δαρμών υπό των Βουλγάρων.
Φωτογραφίας των γεγονότων δεν κατέστη δυνατόν να ανευρεθώσιν πλην τούτων της ανακομιδής των λειψάνων κατά την εκτέλεσιν των ομαδικών τάφων ων το πρωτότυπο φίλμ κατέχει ο Φωτογράφος της πόλεως Θεόδωρος Σερβάνης όστις και μόνον θα ηδύνατο να εξυπηρετήση την υπηρεσία Υμών.

Ο
Δήμαρχος Δράμας
(Τ.Υ)
Ανδρ. Νικηφορίδης

ΚΑΤΑΣΤΑΣΙΣ
Ονομαστική των φονευθέντων υπό των Βουλγάρων

Α/Α Επώνυμον Όνομα Πατρώνυμον Πατρίς Ημέρα θανάτου
1 Πουλασουχίδης Αβραάμ Γεώργιος Ρωσία 12 -8 41
2 Χ΄΄Βασιλείου ή Βασιλειάδης Μηνάς Ιωάννης Καισάρεια 29-9-41
3 Μπέλωφ Στέφανος Κοσμάς Ρωσία 29-9-41
4 Νικολαϊδης Θωμάς Λεωνίδας Προύσα 1-10-41
5 Παναγιωτίδης Γεώργιος Σάββας Ιοσλάτ 29-9-41
6 Κοέν Αβραάμ ήΑμπέρτος Ιακώβ Σέρραι 1-10-41
7 Μεσσήνης Δημήτριος Παναγιώτης Χωριστή 29-9-41
8 Παπαδόπουλος Ανδρέας Αναστάσιος Αρά/πολις 29-9-41
9 Μαυρόπουλος Γεώργιος Νικόλαος Δαρδανέλια 28-9-41
10 Ζινός Μιχαήλ Ζήσης Δράμα 28-9-41
11 Μαυρόπουλος Νικόλαος Χαράλαμπος Κιουτάχεια 29-9-41
12 Εδυάρογλου Ορέστης Αναστάσιος Νίγδη 29-9-41
13 Δέλλας Αστέριος Χρήστος Ορτάκιόϊ 1-10-41
14 Τσόκας Αθανάσιος Χρήστος Δράμα 29-9-41
15 Χριστοχείλης Βασίλειος Σάββας Ικόνιον 29-9-41
16 Γιαννόπουλος Λάζαρος Αβραάμ Νίγδη 29-9-41
17 Καναρίδης Ιωάννης Χαράλαμπος Ορτού 22-1-41
18 Καρατσαλίδης Παντελής Λεόντιος Όσκε 16-9-41
19 Φωτιάδης Αναστάσιος Χαράλαμπος Κοτζά-Πινά 29-9-41
20 Ζαϊμης Παναγιώτης Χαράλαμπος Αμισός 29-9-41
21 Ξενάκης Πασχάλης Κων/τίνος    ———- 1-9-41
22 Νικολάου Κων/τίνος Νικόλαος Λεσκοβέτσιος 29-9-41
23 Γκλαβόπουλος Ανέστης Δημήτριος Αρμαντλή 29-9-41
24 Αποστολίδης Απόστολος Πανταζής Κερμαδή 1-10-41
25 Παστουρματζής Ιωάννης Γεώργιος Ανδρ/πολις 30-9-41
26 Τσελικόγλου Γεώργιος Χρήστος Σαμψούς 29-9-41
27 Καλντερμιτζής Γεώργιος Κλεάνθης Προύσα 30-3-42
28 Κλαβόπουλος Κων/τίνος Διαμαντής Προύσα 1-10-41
29 Καμαρόπουλος Αγαθάγελος Γεώργιος Νικομήδεια 29-9-41
30 Κοϊμτζίδης Ευάγγελος Σεραφείμ Αμάσεια 1-10-41
31 Νικολαϊδης Θωμάς Λεωνίδας Προύσα 1-10-41
32 Τσεκούρας Γεώργιος Παναγιώτης Αμυγδαλιά 29-9-41
33 Χαρακόπουλος Ιωάννης Θεόδωρος Νίγδη 29-9-41
34 Ελευθεριάδης Δημήτριος Ιωάννης Αμισός 29-9-41
35 Ζαχαροπούλου Σταματία Ιωάννης Δράμα 29-9-41
36 Ζαχαροπούλου Μαίρη Ιωάννης Δράμα 1-10-41
37 Παστουρματζής Κων/τίνος Γεώργιος Βέϊκος 28-7-44
38 Δεϊρμεντζόγλου Παύλος Κων/τίνος Νίγδη 29-9-41
39 Πελικπασίδης Παναγιώτης Γεώργιος Αμισός 29-9-41
40 Παναγιωτίδης Ιωάννης Ανέστης Νίγδη 29-9-41
41 Μπρέζα Ελένη Θεόδωρος Δράμα 29-9-41
42 Ιωσηφίδης Γεώργιος Θεόφιλος Προύσα 1-10-41
43 Ιωσηφίδης Νικόλαος Θεόφιλος Προύσα 1-10-41
44 Πιτσικούδης Παναγιώτης Χρήστος Προύσα 1-10-41
45 Ιωσηφίδης Γεώργιος Ιγνάτιος Προύσα 1-10-41
46 Πασακάλης Σάββας Αριστείδης Βιζύη 1-10-41
47 Σαλμανίδης Χρήστος Γεώργιος Σαμψούς 29-9-41
48 Χαλαϊδης Σάββας Χαράλαμπος Πόντος 29-9-41
49 Καλαϊτζόγλου Παρασκευάς Κυριάκος Ορτακινά 28-10-41
50 Κοσμίδης Στυλιανός Ιωάννης Σαμψούς 28-9-41
51 Κουλίδης Νικόλαος Κων/τίνος Ρωσία 29-9-41
52 Κων/νίδης Κυριάκος Κυριάκος Αργυρούπολις 2-10-41
53 Ασπρικίδης Ιωάννης Δημήτριος Νίγδη 1-10-41
54 Ασπρικίδης Γεώργιος Δημήτριος Νίγδη 1-10-41
55 Παπαδόπουλος Μηνάς Ιορδάνης Ποντοκρίτειο 1-10-41
56 Χατζησάββας Σταύρος Ηλίας Αμισός 28-9-41
57 Πολυματίδης Παναγιώτης Σταύρος Τραπεζούς 29-9-41
58 Κοσμίδης Νικόλαος Ιωάννης Ορδού 1-10-41
59 Θεοδωρίδης Βασίλειος Χαράλαμπος Αμισός 28-9-41
60 Κοχαϊμίδης Χρήστος Χαράλαμπος Τραπεζούς 29-9-41
61 Ανανιάδης Πρόδρομος Νικόλαος Νίγδη 29-9-41
62 Κυριλλίδης Κων/τίνος Χρήστος Νικομήδεια 29-9-41
63 Καμπούρογλου Μιχαήλ Χριστόδουλος Κομοτηνή 28-9-41
64 Σπανόπουλος Ιωάννης Βασίλειος Σουτζουγουρή 1-10-41
65 Μουντζούρογλου Νικόλαος Γεώργιος Βιζύη 29-9-41
66 Γούδας Αθανάσιος Μιχαήλ Ηπείρου 30-9-41
67 Σπανόπουλος Δημήτριος Βασίλειος Σουψουρή 1-10-41
68 Γαβριηλίδης Γαβριήλ Σταύρος Δράμα 22-6-42
69 Νταουλτζής Ιωάννης Στλούνος Πάνορμος 1-10-41
70 Πιτουρίδης Πέτρος Χαράλαμπος Τραπεζούς 1-10-41
71 Πολυματίδης Ιωάννης Σταύρος Τραπεζούς 1-10-41
72 Χούρος Νικόλαος Δημήτριος Ασβεστοχώρι 29-9-41
73 Χατζηπαντελής Σωτήριος Χ΄΄Παντελής Προύσα 29-9-41
74 Λίτσος Παναγιώτης Γεώργιος    ——— 1-10-41
75 Ποροζίδης Πολύχρόνης Θεόδωρος Κίος 29-9-41
76 Ορφανίδης Γεώργιος Π΄΄Στυλιανός Σαμψούς 29-9-41
77 Καφαντίδης Αγαθάγγελος Κοσμάς Κίος 29-9-41
78 Θεοδοσιάδης Ελευθέριος Ιωάννης Κίος 29-9-41
79 Παναγιωτίδης Γεώργιος Σάββας Ιοσγάτη 29-9-41
80 Παπαδόπουλος Ευστάθιος Αλέξιος Αμισός 1-10-41
81 Κρήτας Δημήτριος Κων/τίνος Στενήμαχος 29-9-41
82 Π΄΄ Κων/τίνου Κων/τίνος Γεώργιος Κων/πολις 1-10-41
83 Τηλεμάχου Γεώργιος Ευθύμιος Νίγδη 29-9-41
84 Σεμερτζίδης Γεώργιος Στέφανος Ταφλένκιου 29-9-41
85 Δήμου Αναστάσιος Ιωάννης Δράμα 29-9-41
86 Κασμελίδης Λάζαρος Χρήστος Κιαπλίου 29-9-41
87 Δημητριάδης Δημήτριος Ιωάννης 40 Εκκλησιαί 29-9-41
88 Ζουρνάτσογλου Λάζαρος Λάζαρος Καισάρεια 29-9-41
89 Πεντοβέλης Λεωνίδας Παναγιώτης Στενήμαχος 29-9-41
90 Χ΄΄ Μιχαήλ Νικόλαος Δημήτριος Στενήμαχος 29-9-41
91 Νάνου Γεώργιος Στέφανος Δοξάτον 29-9-41
92 Μακούλης Κοσμάς Νικόλαος Στενήμαχος 29-9-41
93 Μεχτίδης Κων/τίνος Πολύχρόνης Κίος 1-10-41
94 Μεχτίδης Δαμιανός Κων/τίνος Κίος 1-10-41
95 Μούτσιος Δημήτριος Νικόλαος Στενήμαχος 29-9-41
96 Μούτσιος Πρόδρομος Δημήτριος Στενήμαχος 29-9-41
97 Κουντουράς Κων/τίνος Δημήτριος Στενήμαχος 29-9-41
98 Κοντόπουλος Παύλος Ιωάννης Σαμψούς 28-9-41
99 Π΄΄Ζαπραϊδης Θωμάς Δημήτριος    ——— 29-9-41
100 Ατσαλίδης Γεώργιος Νικόλαος Στενήμαχος 29-9-41
101 Π΄΄Ζαπραϊδης Νικόλαος Θωμάς Στενήμαχος 29-9-41
102 Βάρακτσης Σωτήριος Θεόδωρος    ——— 29-9-41
103 Δελίτσας Βασίλειος Σταύρος Στενήμαχος 29-9-41
104 Αγγελίδης Αργύριος Αθανάσιος Στενήμαχος 29-9-41
105 Μούτσιος Λάμπρος Χριστόδουλος Στενήμαχος 29-9-41
106 Μποζίκης Δημήτριος Νικόλαος Αρκ/πολις 29-9-41
107 Γκαρμπούνης Φίλιππος Γεώργιος Στενήμαχος 29-9-41
108 Αρβανιτίδης Θεόδωρος Πασχάλης Κοζάνη 29-9-41
109 Κακαράκος Γεώργιος Κων/τίνος Γέννα-Θράκης 29-9-41
110 Ποιμενίδης Παναγιώτης Δαμιανός Αργυρμαλής 28-9-41
111 Χριστοφορίδης Κων/τίνος Γεώργιος Κερασούς 29-9-41
112 Βιζιηνός Χριστόφορος Κων/τίνος Βιζύη 29-9-41
113 Φουρνίδης Ιορδάνης Νικόλαος Νίγδη 28-9-41
114 Καραμιχαήλ Ευστράτιος Σάββας Κούπλιο 28-9-41
115 Καψάλης Δημήτριος Γεώργιος Σύκκια Σμύρνης 15-9-41
116 Παραδεισόπουλος Σταύρος Κυριάκος Κιουτάχεια 29-9-41
117 Ζαφειριάδης Συμεών Ευστράτιος Προύσα 29-9-41
118 Παραδεισόπουλος Αναστάσιος Στέφανος Κοτυσίου 29-9-41
119 Χαρμανταρίδης Αναστάσιος Δημήτριος Χ΄΄Ισμάκος 29-9-41
120 Τόμπαλης Ιωάννης Βασίλειος Λάϊστα Ηπείρου 29-9-41
121 Φουντουκίδης Κων/τίνος Ευάγγελος Βιζύη 1-10-41
122 Μπούγιος Πέτρος Αναστάσιος Μελένικον 1-10-41
123 Νικολαϊδης Αναστάσιος Στυλιανός    ——— 23-10-41
124 Χ΄΄Μιχαηλίδης Ιωάννης Κων/τίνος Κιουπλιό 29-9-41
125 Δούης Δημήτριος Παναγιώτης Κέρκυρα 16-10-42
126 Κοτσανίδης Θεολόγος Άνθιμος Άγκυρα -3-42
127 Παναγιωτίδης Γερμανός Αλέξανδρος Αμισός 1-10-41
128 Ταουσάνης Κων/τίνος Ιωάννης Δράμα 30-9-41
129 Χαριτόπουλος Θεόδωρος Πέτρος    ——— 30-1-41
130 Τελλήογλου Βασίλειος Γεώργιος Σουφράπος 29-1-41
131 Πολυμένης Ιωάννης Αθανάσιος Αρκ/πολις 28-7-43
132 Χ΄΄Χρήστου Δημήτριος Χ΄΄Χρήστος Αδρ/πολις 29-9-41
133 Μποταντζόγλου Ιωάννης Σπυρίδων Πόρος Ικονίου 28-9-41
134 Κων/νίδης Ιωάννης Κυριάκος Κερασούς 28-9-41
135 Καρακάσης Βασίλειος Νικόλαος Αδάπαγα 29-9-41
136 Χ΄΄Αργυρίου Λάμπρος Κων/τίνος Στενήμαχος 29-9-41
137 Σαράφης Παναγιώτης Δημήτριος Δράμα 29-9-41
138 Γατζούρας Απόστολος Στέργιος Στενήμαχος 29-9-41
139 Χρηστοκλής Κώστας Γεώργιος Στενήμαχος 29-9-41
140 Ναλμπαντίδης Ελευθέριος Αλέξανδρος Τσαρσαμπά 29-9-41
141 Καλαϊτζίδης Ανέστης Κων/τίνος Σαμψούς 29-9-41
142 Ξυδάς Πασχάλης Νικόλαος Κεφαληνία 31-8-41
143 Μαγιόγλου Μηνάς Κοσμάς Ικόνιον 29-9-41
144 Χαριζάνης Κων/τίνος Κων/τίνος Φωτολείβος 29-9-41
145 Ηλιάδης Ηλίας Σάββας Πόντος 29-9-41
146 Τζονακάκης Ιωάννης Δημήτριος Κρήτη 26-9-41
147 Νικολάου Μηνάς Γεώργιος Αδάπαζαρ 3-7-41
148 Ρομπαζάκης Ιωάννης Αθανάσιος Λαίστα Ηπ. 7-5-44
149 Μυστακίδης Σάββας Ιωάννης Αμισός 28-9-44
150 Κούρσογλου Δημήτριος Γεώργιος Νίγδη 29-9-41
151 Παπαδόπουλος Λεόντιος Π΄΄Γεώργιος Σαμψούς 27-5-42
152 Θεοδωρίδης Δημήτριος Θεόδωρος Πόντος 28-9-41
153 Π΄΄Χρήστου Ευάγγελος Νικόλαος Τρίκαλα -12-52
154 Καπέτης Νικόλαος Ιωάννης Ήπειρος 16-1-45
155 Πάσχος Πασχάλης Θεόδωρος Χωριστή 14-10-41
156 Σαββίδης Χαράλαμπος Σάββας Πόντος 29-9-41
157 Γλαβόπουλος Φιλόθεος Δημήτριος Προύσα 29-9-41
158 Σαμαρίδης Θεόδωρος Αδάμ Πόντος 10-10-41
159 Κασάπης Γεώργιος Απόστολος Ορτάκιόϊ 5-6-43
160 Κουγιουμτζής Λεωνίδας Δημήτριος 40 Εκκλησιαί 29-9-41
161 Ηλιάδης Γεώργιος Ηλίας Κύπρος 29-9-41
162 Παπαδόπουλος Άνθιμος Κων/τίνος Κερασούς 29-9-41
163 Μάγειρος Σωτήριος Ιωάννης Δράμα 30-5-43
164 Χαρμανταρίδης Αναστάσιος Δημήτριος Αμισός 29-9-41
165 Αμοιρίδης Αδάμ Δημήτριος Αργυρούπολις 13-10-42
166 Μπίττης Δημήτριος Στέργιος Μεσολόγγιον 29-9-41
167 Ξανθόπουλος Κων/τίνος Ιωάννης Πόντος 29-9-41
168 Κτιστάκης Εμμανουήλ Γεώργιος Κρήτη 1-10-41
169 Κουμιστοβίτογλου Κων/τίνος Παΐσιος Πόντος 29-9-41
170 Καρατζίδης Λεωνίδας Ιορδάνης Κιουπλιό 29-9-41
171 Κεσέσογλου Βασίλειος Χαράλαμπος Νίγδη 29-9-41
172 Βασιλειάδης Κυριάκος Κοσμάς Αμισός 29-9-41
173 Καρυοφυλλίδης Ιωάννης Καρυοφίλης Αμισός 28-9-41
174 Κεσίσογλου Χαράλαμπος Βασίλειος Νίγδη 12-9-41
175 Γιάντσιος Γεώργιος Δημήτριος 40 Εκκλησιαί 1-9-41
176 Τσαμτσής Δημήτριος Δημήτριος Αρμουτζή 22-11-41
177 Παραντάλος Ιωάννης Γεώργιος Δράμα 4-7-41
178 Μαντόπουλος Αναστάσιος Ευστάθιος Σιώκα 29-9-41
179 Ζωπίδης Δημήτριος Ηλίας Σαμψούς 29-9-41
180 Δήμητσος Γεώργιος Ευρυπίδης 40 Εκκλησιαί 29-9-41
181 Θεοδωρίδης Βασίλειος Χαράλαμπος Τσαρσαμπά 29-9-41
182 Κετεντζής Θεόδωρος Μιχαήλ Τυρολόη 29-9-41
183 Ανανιάδης Θεόδωρος Νικόλαος Νίγδη 29-9-41
184 Μαβίδης Θεόδωρος Θεοφάνης Αμισσός 29-9-41
185 Συκοβαρίδης Θεόκλιτος Κων/τίνος Σιδηρό-καστρον 30-9-41
186 Συμεωνίδης Ματθαίος Αλέξανδρος Τραπεζούς 11-8-43
187 Βρασίδας Γεώργιος Σωκράτης Τραπεζούς 4-10-44
188 Ζουρνατζής Γεώργιος Παύλος Πόντος 15-9-42
189 Χαλάτσης Ανέστης Δημήτριος Δράμα 29-9-41
190 Κατερίδης Λεωνίδας Δημήτριος Ιωάννινα 29-9-41
191 Φραντζής Παναγιώτης Θεόδωρος Δράμα 9-2-42
192 Μαργαρίτης Λιόντος Παναγιώτης Δράμα 5-12-45
193 Βαλάνης Φαίδων Δημήτριος Δράμα 15-7-42
194 Τοκαλίδης Παύλος Αβραάμ Τραπεζούς 10-10-41
195 Σαββόπουλος Πολύχρόνης Σάββας Νικομήδεια 21-8-43
196 Γιαννακάκης Αναστάσιος Αθανάσιος Κων/πολις 4-11-41
197 Παπαχρήστος Δημήτριος Γεώργιος Τρίκαλα 4-8-43
198 Πανταζόπουλος Νικόλαος Δημήτριος Καλαμάτα 1-10-41
199 Τριανταφυλλίδης Δημήτριος Παναγιώτης Ρωσία 11-4-44
200 Παπαδόπουλος Ιωάννης Απόστολος Κιουτάχεια 29-9-41
201 Παπαδόπουλος Απόστολος Ιωάννης Κιουτάχεια 29-9-41
202 Αρβανιτίδης Βασίλειος Ιωάννης Δράμα 29-9-41
203 Μαρθάριος Γεώργιος Ιωάννης Σουφλί 8-7-41
204 Μιχαηλίδης Κων/τίνος Ευάγγελος Άρθου 21-11-41
205 Βενετίδης Μιχαήλ Ράϊκος Ορτάκιόϊ 20-11-42
206 Βασιλειάδης Κυριάκος Κοσμάς Νίγδη 29-9-41
207 Ιντζεπογαλίδης Κων/τίνος Αθανάσιος Αμισσός 10-10-42
208 Μιχαλάκας Δημήτριος Γεώργιος Θράκη 26-11-43
209 Ναλμπάντογλου Μιχαήλ Γεώργιος Αίνος 4-1-42
210 Ανδρεάδης Παύλος Ηλίας Αμισσός 29-9-41
211 Παπαδόπουλος Παναγιώτης Ευστάθιος Κουλακαγιά 1-10-41
212 Κουγιουμτζής Λεωνίδας Δημήτριος    ———- 29-9-41
213 Δαδάκης Δημήτριος Ιωάννης 40 Εκκλησιαί 30-9-41
214 Μπεριανίδης Αναστάσιος Δημήτριος ———– 29-9-41
215 Λαμπριανίδης Δημήτριος Γεώργιος Ραφαγιά 3-4-43
216 Βαμβακίδης Αριστοτέλης Αναστάσιος Αμισσός 2-10-41
217 Σαρίδης Γεώργιος Βουκλίδης Δράμα 30-9-41
218 Ζαφειρίου Ιωάννης Ζαφείριος Κεσσάνη 9-5-45
219 Καρούσης Χρήστος Σούλης Μέτσοβον 26-9-44
220 Καρακεχαΐδης Σταύρος Ιωάννης Σαμψούς 30-10-42
221 Πεταλούδης Ιωάννης Κων/τίνος Σερβία 29-9-41
222 Δημητριάδης Δημήτριος Μελλισινός Μ.Ασία 30-9-41
223 Ζωγράφος Μιχαήλ Ζωή Αδρ/πολις 26-10-42
224 Δεβελέγκας Θεόδωρος Ιωάννης Ήπειρος 1-10-41
225 Αλεξανδρίδης Αλέξανδρος Κων/τίνος Δράμα 10-10-41
226 Φιλιππίδης Γεώργιος Φίλιππος Μαρώνια 24-4-42
227 Γαβριηλίδου Σοφία Ιάκωβος ———– 20-10-41
228 Καραβάλης Κλεομένης Κων/τίνος Σώκια 24-5-44
229 Καμπερίδης Ιωάννης Ηλίας Κιουτάχεια 16-8-44
230 Ταπεινόπουλος Αναστάσιος Γεώργιος Πόντος 29-9-41
231 Δημητριάδης Λούης Παναγιώτης Κέρκυρα 25-1-41
232 Ταμπάκης Ιωάννης Εμμανουήλ Ορτάκιόϊ 24-3-44
233 Αθανασίου Ιωάννης Γεώργιος Δράμα 30-10-41
234 Πολυτεχνίτης Παναγιώτης Σωτήριος Αδρ/πολις 12-2-42
235 Παπαδημόπουλος Δημήτριος Δημοσθένης 40 Εκκλησιαί 29-9-41
236 Γιαντζόγλου Μάρθα Γεώργιος Δράμα 8-7-41
237 Μαρουλάς Δημήτριος Παναγιώτης Τριγίνα Αργολ 25-12-41
238 Τσοκαλίδης Μιχαήλ Δημήτριος Αρμουτζής 29-9-41
239 Μποσταντζόγλου Βασίλειος Μηνάς Μ.Ασία 29-9-41
240 Ραμπότας Ανέστης Απόστολος Δράμα 7-12-41
241 Αντωνίου Ανέστης Ιωακείμ Δρούλακον 29-9-41
242 Παπαθεμελής Μιχαήλ Γεώργιος Βυσσώκα 26-6-43
243 Γιαγτζής Αθανάσιος Δημήτριος 40 Εκκλησιαί 2-10-41
244 Σιώπης Χαράλαμπος Γεώργιος Ορτάκιόϊ 29-9-41
245 Κασμερίδης Λάζαρος Χρήστος Κιουπλιό 29-9-41
246 Βασιλειάδης Αναστάσιος Αναστάσιος Σαμψούς 30-9-41
247 Ραπτόπουλος Γεώργιος Ιωάννης Αργυρούπολις 24-8-42
248 Πέτσας Δημήτριος Γεώργιος Ήπειρος 13-1-41
249 Παπαδόπουλος Ιωάννης Ηλίας Άγκυρα 28-8-42
250 Πανίδης Βασίλειος Μιχαήλ Αδάπαζαρ 15-5-44
251 Πούγκας Αθανάσιος Πάσχος Φωτολείβος 29-9-41
252 Σιδηρόπουλος Ιωάννης Παύλος Τίανα 21-5-44
253 Ελληνούδης Θεόδωρος Δημήτριος ——— 14-2-44
254 Ευτάτογλου Σωκράτης Ιωάννης ——— 18-5-42
255 Νοταρίδη Αγγελική Πολύχρόνης Σαμψούς 13-10-45
256 Καρυπίδης Αναστάσιος Κων/τίνος Σαμψούς 4-10-45
257 Καρυπίδης Σωτήριος Αθανάσιος Βαβαέσκη 8-2-42
258 Απόστολος Λάμπρος Μούτσιος 29-9-41
259 Σαζούρας Στέργιος Απόστολος 29-9-41
260 Χ΄΄Αργυρίου Λάμπρος Κων/τίνος 29-9-41
261 Τσιάρας Στέργιος Βασίλειος 29-9-41
262 Βασματζής Μιχαήλ Κων/τίνος 29-9-41
263 Βασματζής Ελευθέριος Κων/τίνος 29-9-41
264 Κάπης Μιλτιάδης Παναγιώτης 29-9-41
265 Ατσαλίδης Ιωάννης Νικόλαος 29-9-41
266 Ατσαλίδης Νικόλαος Ιωάννης 29-9-41
267 Κόττας Χριστοκλής Γεώργιος 29-9-41
268 Γκαρμπούνης Φίλιππος Γεώργιος 29-9-41
269 Λιλίτσας Μιχαήλ Δημήτριος 29-9-41
270 Χ΄΄Αβανίδης Νικόλαος Γεώργιος 29-9-41
271 Χ΄΄Αβανίδης Συμεών Γεώργιος 29-9-41
272 Πασχαλίδης Χρήστος Ιωάννης 29-5-44
273 Τσάμογλου Ονούφριος Βασίλειος 27-7-44
274 Μάρδας Στέφανος Κων/τίνος 29-9-41
275 Ψαλτίδης Δημήτριος Νικόλαος 29-9-41
276 Ωρολογάς Σταμάτης Γεώργιος 29-9-41
277 Κυριακόπουλος Φώτιος Ανδρέας 29-9-41
278 Παπαδόπουλος Αθανάσιος Νικόλαος 29-10-41
279 Δούραλης Δημήτριος Ιωάννης 29-9-41
280 Χασιρτζή Χρυσούλα Κων/τίνος 30-9-41
281 Μούσκος Άγγελος Αθανάσιος 29-9-41
282 Αθανασίου Ιωάννης Γεώργιος 29-9-41
283 Ξυδιάς Πασχάλης Νικόλαος 29-9-41
284 Γεωργιάδης Χριστόδουλος Νικόλαος 3-10-41
285 Καμπατσίδης Μενέλαος Νικόλαος 17-9-44
286 Κωφαντίδης Αγαθάγγελος Χρυσόστομος 29-9-41
287 Ροσσόπουλος Θεόδωρος Γεώργιος 29-9-41
288 Ποτουρίδης Ηλίας Πέτρος 29-9-41
289 Αμανατίδης Στέφανος Αμανάτιος 29-9-41
290 Αμανατίδης Νεοκλής Στέφανος 29-9-41
291 Κοτσανίδης Θεολόγος Άνθιμος 3-10-41
292 Κουρτίδης Τιμολέων Ιωάννης 5-11-43
293 Θεοδωρίδου Σοφία Γρηγόριος 20-5-42
294 Θεοδωρίδης Μιχαήλ Θεόδωρος 2-2-43
295 Θεοδωρίδου Μαρίκα Χαρίλαος 2-2-43
296 Καμπερίδης Ιωάννης Χαρίλαος 15-8-44
297 Μικριάν Σοσί Σκόν 6-10-44
298 Μαντικιάν Βαρτανούς Βαρτάν 6-10-44
299 Παπαζιάν Αρτίν Σαρκίς 29-9-41
300 Κατσάνης Στέφανος Κων/τίνος 3-10-41
301 Μπρέζα Ελένη Θεόδωρος 1-10-41
302 Εδιάρογλου Ορέστης Αναστάσιος 1-10-41
303 Πιτετζή Βασιλική Ανδρέας 6-10-44
304 Πιτετζή Κυριακίτσα Ανδρέας 6-10-44
305 Μαναλικάδης Ευθύμιος Χρήστος 15-9-43
306 Θεοδοσιάδης Παναγιώτης Ιωάννης 2-10-41
307 Σωτηρίου Γεώργιος Σωκράτης 2-10-41
308 Π΄΄Γεωργίου Ιωάννης Κων/τίνος 19-8-44
309 Κων/νίδης Θεόδωρος Παντελής 29-10-41
310 Γρηγορίου Γεώργιος Γρηγόριος 25-7-44
311 Σελαλμαζίδης Γεώργιος Κων/τίνος 29-10-41
312 Σελαλμαζίδου Άννα Γεώργιος 29-10-41
313 Σελαλμαζίδης Παναγιώτης Γεώργιος 29-10-41
314 Λαφτσίδου Ταμάμα Μιχαήλ 1-8-44
315 Σελαλματζίδης Γεώργιος Π΄΄Ιωάννης 15-4-41
316 Μήλια Σοφία Σάββας 10-5-44
317 Ρόμπος Στέφανος Ιωάννης 29-9-41
318 Μότσανος Κων/τίνος Θωμάς 29-9-41
319 Λαφτσίδης Κων/τίνος Ιορδάνης 4-8-43
320 Μότσανος Θωμάς Κων/τίνος 29-9-41
321 Σιμσιρίδης Βασίλειος Θωμάς 5-5-44
322 Βογιατζής Αναστάσιος Ιορδάνης 10-9-42
323 Παπαδόπουλος Ευάγγελος Αντώνιος 29-9-41
324 Τσιαπεσίδης Ιωάννης Ιορδάνης 1-5-44
325 Αλβανίδης Πρόδρομος Χρήστος 1-5-44
326 Παπαδημητρίου Αναστάσιος Δημήτριος 3-8-44
327 Βουτσάς Αθανάσιος Δημήτριος 29-9-41
328 Αναστασιάδης Ιωάννης Γεώργιος 29-9-41
329 Βενίδης Λεωνίδας Αργύριος 5-8-42
330 Θωμάς Νικόλαος Κων/νίδης 3-10-41
331 Κων/νίδης Ευάγγελος Θωμάς 3-10-41
332 Κων/νίδης Παναγιώτης Θωμάς 3-10-41
333 Ιωαννίδης Ιωάννης Σωκράτης 1-10-41
334 Καραϊσαρλής Θρασύβουλος Δημήτριος 1-10-41
335 Αφαζίδης Αλέξανδρος Παντελής 1-10-41
336 Καρασούλης Χρήστος Σούλης 9-10-44
337 Χ΄΄Σάββας Σταύρος Ηλίας -10-41
338 Ράσης Ζήσης Παναγιώτης -10-41
339 Ιντζεαράτης Ιωάννης Γεώργιος 8-8-44
340 Καλδιριμτζής Γεώργιος Κλεάνθης 5-3-42
341 Γεωργιάδης Χαράλαμπος Λάμπρος 10-10-41
342 Κόττας Παναγιώτης Γεώργιος 1-10-41
343 Λουκαγίδης Γεώργιος Νικόλαος 5-5-43
344 Καραβέλης Κλεομένης Κων/τίνος 8-8-44
345 Ασημακόπουλος Γεώργιος Γεώργιος 5-5-43
346 Τριανταφυλλίδης Σάββας Παντελής 5-5-43
347 Καπουσούζης Κων/τίνος Δημήτριος 5-5-43
348 Γεωργιάδης Γεώργιος Ιορδάνης 3-3-42
349 Δεμίσης Βασίλειος Γεώργιος 5-10-41
350 Μαυρουδής Γεώργιος Ιορδάνης 11-1-44
351 Αλτίκης Δημήτριος Γεώργιος 3-10-41
352 Λαφαζάνης Δημήτριος Νικόλαος 3-12-41
353 Καντυλανάπτης Θεόδωρος Δημήτριος 25-5-45
354 Καλτιριμτζής Δημήτριος Κλεάνθης 8-8-44
355 Παπαδόπουλος Χαράλαμπος Κοσμάς 5-8-41
356 Σταμπουλής Θεόδωρος Ιωάννης 29-9-41
357 Καλαϊδόπουλος Ιωάννης Απόστολος 29-9-41
358 Ιορδανίδης Παναγιώτης Κων/τίνος 12-9-43
359 Ιορδανίδης Κων/τίνος Παναγιώτης 12-9-43
360 Πασχαλίδης Στυλιανός Παναγιώτης 8-8-44
361 Πασχαλίδης Θεόφιλος Στυλιανός 8-8-44
362 Μοιχίδης Χρήστος Δημήτριος 14-11-43
363 Παππουτζής Ιωάννης Δημήτριος 8-8-44
364 Νικομήδου Αθανάσιος Βασίλειος 6-10-41
365 Ευθυμιάδης Ιωσήφ Παρασκευάς 15-8-43
366 Τσότσος Αθανάσιος Παύλος 8-10-44
367 Δεβελέγκας Θεόδωρος Ιωάννης 1-10-41
368 Χρυσομαλλίδης Παρθένιος Πρόδρομος 29-9-41
369 Ανθουλάκης Μάνθος Δημήτριος 29-9-41
370 Ποροζίδης Πολύχρόνιος Θεόδωρος 29-9-41
371 Παπαχρήστου Δημήτριος Γεώργιος 4-7-44
372 Θεοφίλου Αντώνιος Θεόφιλος 29-9-41
373 Τσεκούρας Γεώργιος Παναγιώτης 29-9-41
374 Ανανιάδης Θεόδωρος Νικόλαος 29-9-41
375 Κλαβόπουλος Ανέστης Δημήτριος 29-9-41
376 Π΄΄Κων/τίνου Κων/τίνος Γεώργιος 29-9-41
377 Λαφτσίδης Βασίλειος Ηλίας 29-9-41
378 Ρόμπος Στέφανος Ιωάννης 29-9-41
379 Πολιτάρχης Χρήστος Βασίλειος 29-9-41
380 Αγγελίδης Αλφαίος Νικόλαος 29-9-41
381 Σιδηρόπουλος Γρηγόριος Πρόδρομος 29-9-41
382 Χριστοχείλης Βασίλειος Σάββας 29-9-41
383 Μποτούρογλου Νικόλαος Γεώργιος 29-9-41
384 Μποτούρογλου Δημήτριος Γεώργιος 29-9-41
385 Καραχισαρλίδης Παντελής Λεόντιος 29-9-41
386 Τελλόγλου Ιορδάνης Γεώργιος 2-10-41
367 Τελλίγας Βασίλειος Γεώργιος 2-10-41
388 Χ΄΄Ηλιάδης Ιωάννης Ηλίας 1-10-41
389 Βαίμης Παναγιώτης Αναστάσιος 29-10-41
390 Μπεργιανίδης Αναστάσιος Κων/τίνος 29-10-41
391 Μποζίνης Δημήτριος Νικόλαος 29-10-41
392 Παλαιοδημόπουλος Ιωάννης Ευστάθιος 29-10-41
393 Τυμπανίδης Μηνάς Ιωάννης 29-10-41
394 Χαρακόπουλος Ιωάννης Θεόδωρος 29-10-41
395 Παπαδόπουλος Ανδρέας Αναστάσιος 29-10-41
396 Αφεντούλης Νικόλαος Λάζαρος 29-10-41
397 Μωϋσιάδης Αθανάσιος Διαμαντής 29-10-41
398 Ματζαρίδης Γεώργιος Δημήτριος 29-10-41
399 Σαμαρτζής Γεώργιος Στέφανος 29-10-41
400 Περβανίδης Δημήτριος Σπύρος 29-10-41
401 Κικκινίδης Πολυδεύκης Σταύρος 29-10-41
402 Σαραφίδης Ευδόκιμος Χατζής 5-5-41
403 Τριανταφύλλου Αλέξης Γρηγόριος 1-10-41
404 Ναλμπάντης Ελευθέριος Αλέξανδρος 29-9-41
405 Κοντόπουλος Ευστάθιος Παύλος 29-9-41
406 Ευσταθιάδης Μιχαήλ Ιορδάνης 29-9-41
407 Φουρνίδης Ιορδάνης Νικόλαος 30-9-41
408 Κιολίδης Νικόλαος Κων/τίνος 30-9-41
409 Κουλίδη Όλγα Ιωάννης 30-9-41
410 Σαβουλίδης Παναγιώτης Γεώργιος 30-9-41
411 Κουρσόγλου Δημήτριος Γεώργιος 30-9-41
412 Μαζαρακίδης Γεώργιος Μαζαράκης 30-9-41
413 Μαζαρακίδης Μιχαήλ Μαζαράκης 30-9-41
414 Κοκοράκης Γεώργιος Κων/τίνος 30-9-41
415 Παπάς Δημήτριος Κων/τίνος 30-9-41
416 Γρηγοριάδης Κυριάκος Σεραφείμ 29-11-42
417 Λουκιανός Ιωάννης Κελλίδης 12-8-44
418 Ζωγράφου Μιχαήλ Ζώης 29-9-41
419 Μαργαριτίδης Νικόλαος Κρυωνάς 4-12-41
420 Πλατσίδης Παναγιώτης Δημήτριος 30-10-41
421 Γιαλαμπούκης Ιωάννης Χρήστος 29-9-41
422 Γιαννουκλίδου Ελένη Γιαννουκλής 29-9-41
423 Βεργίδης Ιωάννης Ευστάθιος 30-9-41
424 Αραμπατζίδης Στέφανος Κων/τίνος 3-10-41
425 Αποστολίδης Απόστολος Πανταζής 1-10-41
426 Γιαννακάκης Αναστάσιος Αθανάσιος 30-9-41
427 Κιουμουτζής Νικόλαος Χαράλαμπος
428 Καλαϊτζής Γεώργιος Ιωάννης 1-10-41
429 Παπαδόπουλος Ιωάννης Κυριάκος 8-10-41
430 Κοκοράκος Κων/τίνος Γεώργιος 29-10-41
431 Μαυριακώφ Ανάργυρος Ιωακείμ 29-10-41
432 Μαυρόπουλος Γεώργιος Νικόλαος 29-10-41
433 Παυλίδης Αναστάσιος Γεώργιος 15-8-44
434 Χ΄΄Συμεωνίδης Κων/τίνος Γρηγόριος 30-5-42
435 Βαμβακάς Ιωάννης Τζανής 29-9-41
436 Βοσκόπουλος Μιχαήλ Αντώνιος 29-9-41
437 Κιτεντζής Θεόδωρος Μιχαήλ 29-9-41
438 Μαυρόπουλος Νίκος Χαράλαμπος 29-9-41
439 Γιάντζος Γεώργιος Δημήτριος 29-9-41
440 Γεωργιάδης Αδάμ Γεώργιος 29-9-41
441 Κωττόπουλος Χρήστος Σαράντης 29-9-41
442 Πολίτης Γεώργιος Κων/τίνος 8-2-42
443 Μαρουλάς Δημήτριος Παναγιώτης 25-12-42
444 Πελιόγλου Ιωάννης Γεώργιος 29-9-41
445 Πελιόγλου Βασίλειος Γεώργιος 29-9-41
446 Γιαγτζόγλου Μάρθα Γεώργιος 9-10-41
447 Φραντζής Παναγιώτης Δημήτριος 9-2-42
448 Κοέν Αλβέρτος Αβραάμ 1-10-41
449 Ξανθόπουλος Κων/τίνος Ιωάννης 29-9-41
450 Αραμπατζίδης Δημήτριος Κων/τίνος 29-9-41
451 Αθανασίου Ιωάννης Γεώργιος 29-9-41
452 Καρυοφύλλης Σταμάτιος Νικόλαος 29-9-41
453 Πασιάς Σταύρος Κων/τίνος 29-9-41
454 Σαμαρίδης Θεόδωρος Αδάμ 29-9-41
455 Κοντογιάννης Δημήτριος Αλέξανδρος 29-9-41
456 Ρανίδης Διαμαντής Κων/τίνος 30-9-41
457 Αϊνατζίδης Ιωάννης Θεόδωρος 30-9-41
458 Γιώτης Παναγιώτης Απόστολος 29-9-41
459 Ανανιάδης Παναγιώτης Χαράλαμπος 30-9-41
460 Παπαχρήστου Ευάγγελος Νικόλαος 10-1-42
461 Αθανασιάδης Θεόφιλος Δημήτριος 29-9-41
462 Παπαζήσης Αντώνιος Ιωάννης 29-9-41
463 Παπαζήσης Ζήσης Ιωάννης 29-9-41
464 Παπαζήσης Κων/τίνος Ιωάννης 29-9-41
465 Κων/νίδης Σάββας Θωμάς 29-9-41
466 Κων/νίδης Νικόλαος Ιωάννης 29-9-41
467 Κων/νίδης Ευάγγελος Ιωάννης 29-9-41
468 Κων/νίδης Παναγιώτης Ιωάννης 29-9-41

Συμπληρωματικός Πίναξ
Αποβιωσάντων εκ ξυλοδαρμού υπό των Βουλγάρων

Α/Α Ονοματεπώνυμον Όνομα

Πατρός

Έτος

γεννήσεως

Ημερομηνία θανάτου
1 Παπαδάκης Αργύριος Ευάγγελος 1900 29 Σ/βρίου 1942
2 Γαβριηλίδης Λάζαρος Ιωάννης 1894 5 Αυγούστου 1942
3 Λεπεζίδης Δημήτριος Δημήτριος 1889 Ιανουαρίου 1943
4 Γεννημάκης Φλαβιανός Βασίλειος 1927 21 Μαΐου 1944
5 Παντελίδου Ελένη   συζ. Γεωργίου 1913 29 Σ/βρίου 1941
6 Φέσσα Έλλη           θυγ. Μιχαήλ 1905 3 Ν/βρίου 1943
7 Ηλιάδης Θεόδωρος Χαράλαμπος 1879 23 Αυγούστου 1942
8 Βασιλειάδης Απόστολος Πέτρος 1913 1 Σ/βρίου 1943
9 Τσιντζίδης Κων/τίνος Στέφανος 1894 18 Μαρτίου 1942
10 Νικολαϊδης Κων/τίνος Γρηγόριος 1907 23 Μαρτίου 1942
11 Ξεροσαββίδης Ιωάννης Κων/τίνος 1907 24 Απριλίου 1943
12 Παπανικολάου Ανέστης Σωτήριος 1889 5 Μαΐου 1942
13 Λαζαρίδης Μηνάς Κων/τίνος 1917 18 8/βρίου 1942
14 Αβερκιάδης Δημήτριος Χ΄΄Απόστολος 1887 1 8/βρίου 1942
15 Χοροζίδης Παναγιώτης Ιωάννης 1925 14 8/βρίου 1943
16 Τσατλάκογλου Παντελής Κυριάκος 1893 12 Ιουνίου 1942
17 Δεϊρμεντζόγλου Χρήστος Γεώργιος 1879 12 Μαΐου 1942
18 Τσατλάκογλου Κυριακή Παντελής 1925 3 Μαρτίου 1943
19 Τσεκιτζής Μιχαήλ Χρήστος 1882 12 8/βρίου 1943
20 Κομνηνόπουλος Κομνηνός Ιωσήφ 1895 12 Ιουλίου 1944
21 Κασμερίδης Παντελής Νικόλαος 1919 28 Σ/βρίου 1941
22 Χ΄΄Εφραιμίδης Αναστάσιος Λάζαρος 1921 4 Ιανουαρίου 1943
23 Αλτιντζόγλου Δημήτριος Πέτρος 1874 10 Ν/βρίου 1943
24 Νταλακμάνης Δημοσθένης Σταύρος 1924 18 Αυγούστου 1941
25 Χατζηλίας Ιωάννης Ηλίας 1881 29 Σ/βρίου 1941
26 Πατσιώρης ή Πιτσώρης Θεοφάνης Αργύριος 1918 18 Μαρτίου 1943
27 Ουζούνης Χρήστος Θεοφάνης 1883 13 Ιουνίου 1943
28 Μάρκου Δημήτριος Παναγιώτης 1886 2 Ιουλίου 1941

Εν Δράμα τη 25-Σ/βρίου-1954
Ο
Δήμαρχος Δράμας
(Τ.Υ)

Εκθεση Δράσης ΠΑΟ (Πανελλήνια Απελευθερωτική Οργάνωση)


ΠΑΝΕΛΛΗΝΙΟΣ ΑΠΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΩΤΙΚΗ ΟΡΓΑΝΩΣΙΣ
(Π.Α.Ο)

ΕΚΘΕΣΙΣ
ΣΥΝΟΠΤΙΚΗ ΤΗΣ ΔΡΑΣΕΩΣ ΤΗΣ ΟΡΓΑΝΩΣΕΩΣ

1) Η Εθνική Οργάνωσις Π.Α.Ο εξασφαλίσασα την εσωτερικήν της Οργάνωσιν, ΔΙΟΙΚΗΣΕΙΣ – ΕΠΙΤΕΛΕΙΟΝ – ΥΠΗΡΕΣΙΑΙ – ΕΙΔΙΚΑΙ – ΚΑΙ ΥΠΗΡΕΣΙΑΙ εν τη ΘΕΣ/ΝΙΚΗ και εις ολόκληρον την υπόλοιπον Κεντρικήν και Δ.Μακεδονίαν κ.λ.π κατά τρόπον ανταποκρινόμενον εις την εκπλήρωσιν των τεθέντων Εθνικών σκοπών της και επιτυχούσα την επαφήν της μετά του Συμμαχικού Στρατηγείου της Μ.Ανατολής, καθώς και της Κυβερνήσεως του Καϊρου παρ’ ης εδέχθη και τας πρώτας υλικάς ενισχύσεις, επεξέτεινε την δράσιν της εφ’ όλων των τομέων και εξυπηρέτησιν εν παντί το σύνολον των εκ της τριπλής κατοχής απορρεουσών εθνικών υποχρεώσεών της ως επίσης εξεπλήρωσεν εις το ακέραιον και τας εντολάς του Συμ. Στρατηγείου Μ.Ανατολής και της Κυβερνήσεως του Καϊρου, υπό τας ακολούθους εν συνόψει συνθήκας. Συνέχεια

Εκθεση Αρχικής Συγκρότησης και Σκοπών Πανελλήνιας Απελευθερωτικής Οργάνωσης (ΠΑΟ)


ΠΑΝΕΛΛΗΝΙΟΣ ΑΠΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΩΤΙΚΗ ΟΡΓΑΝΩΣΙΣ
(Π.Α.Ο)
ΓΕΝΙΚΗ ΟΡΓΑΝΩΣΙΣ ΚΑΙ ΣΥΓΚΡΟΤΗΣΙΣ
ΑΡΧΙΚΗ ΣΥΓΚΡΟΤΗΣΙΣ ΚΑΙ ΣΚΟΠΟΙ

1) Η Οργάνωσις συνεκροτήθη αρχικώς υπό ομάδος Αξιωματικών και Πολιτών το θέρος του 1941 και ανεπτύχθη προοδευτικώς επιτυχούσα μέχρι των αρχών του 1943 την πλήρη της ανάπτυξιν.
2) Οι τεθέντες σκοποί της Οργανώσεως ήσαν :
(α) Αντίστασις πάσης φύσεως και κυρίως ενόπλου τοιαύτης κατά των Κατακτητών προς υποβοήθησιν του Συμμαχικού Αγώνος.
(β) Τόνωσις του φρονήματος και εξύψωσις του ηθικού του πληθυσμού.
(γ) Καταπολέμησις της Βουλγαρικής και Ρουμανικής προπαγάνδας ήτις υπό την προστασίαν των Γερμανών και Ιταλών αναπτύξει είχε εξαιρετικήν δραστηριότητα μεταξύ του πληθυσμού.
(δ) Συμμετοχή τελικώς δι’ όλων των δυνάμεων εις τας επιχειρήσεις απελευθερώσεως και καταδιώξεως των κατακτητών.
3) Διά την επίτευξιν των ανωτέρω σκοπών η Π.Α.Ο, προέβη εις την οργάνωσιν :
(α) του πληθυσμού των αστικών κέντρων και της υπαίθρου διά της συγκροτήσεως Επιτροπών Αγώνος εις τας πόλεις και τα χωρία. Συνέχεια

Περί τρόπου συλλήψεως Κομμουνιστών, Ιταλικές Αρχές Κατοχής, AX/TA3/21-8-1941


ΑΡΧΗΓΕΙΟΝ ΧΩΡΟΦΥΛΑΚΗΣ
ΤΜΗΜΑ – ΑΣΦΑΛΕΙΑΣ
ΓΡΑΦΕΙΟΝ ΙΙον Αθήναι τη 21-8-1941
Προς
Τας Ανωτέρας Διοικήσεις Χωροφυλακής Αστυνομικήν Δ/σιν Ειδικής Ασφαλείας.
«Περί τρόπου συλλήψεως των Κομμουνιστών, εντολή των Ιταλικών αρχών κατοχής»
Λαβών αφορμήν εξ αναφοράς της Δ/σεως Ειδικής Ασφαλείας του Κράτους σχετικώς τη περιλήψει μετά σύμφωνον γνώμην του Υπουργείου Δημ. Ασφαλείας περι ης υπ’ αριθ.18/145 ε. ε. ε. διαταγή αυτού,
Καθορίζω,
Τον ακόλουθον τρόπον συλλήψεως των Κομμουνιστών παρά της Διευθύνσεως Ειδ. Ασφαλείας Κράτους ή άλλων Δ/σεων αξιωματικών Χωροφυλακής εντολή των Ιταλικών Αρχών Κατοχής. Συνέχεια

Remarks by the Prime Minister of Canada Hon. Lyon Mackenzie King. 1 July 1941


The world had the greatest admiration for Classical Greece, but now the admiration for the same land is beyond any bounds. Italy attacked first, and then German forces came to Italy’s assistance. Greece stood up against both – a lesson of natural courage. Humanity will never forget the bravery shown by Greece at this time. The sacrifice of Greece was not vain. Canada’s efforts to alleviate famine in Greece were welcomed as was her promise to send wheat to Greece as soon as ships are available. Canada will never rest until Greece is restored and her independence secured.

Mackenzie King,

Prime Minister of Canada

Turkish-German Treaty of Friendship. Ankara, 18 June 1941


The German Government and the Turkish Republic, inspired by a desire to place relations between the two countries on a basis of mutual confidence and sincere friendship, agreed without prejudice to present obligations of both countries to conclude a treaty.

For this purpose the German Reich Chancellor appointed Ambassador Franz von Papen and the President of the Turkish Republic appointed Foreign Minister Shukru Saracoglu as plenipotentiaries, who, on the basis of full powers accorded them, have agreed on the following declaration: Συνέχεια


 ΚΡΗΤΗ Τη 17 Ιουνίου 1941

Βάσει της εξουσιοδοτήσεως ην μοι παρέσχεν ο Φύρερ και Ανώτατος Αρχηγός του Στρατού εντέλλομαι τα κάτωθι.

ΥΠΟΧΡΕΩΣΙΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑΣ
1ον/ Ολος ο πληθυσμός ανεξαρτήτως επαγγέλματος ηλικίας και φύλλου υποχρεούνται κατά διαταγήν του Δημάρχου να προσφέρουν ΟΙΑΝΔΗΠΟΤΕ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑΝ. Τούτο ισχύει ιδιαιτέρως διά την συγκέντρωσιν της συγκομιδής, δι’ αεροδρόμια, δρόμους και παρομοίας εργασίας.
2ον/ Μέχρι νεωτέρας διαταγής τούτο ισχύει ΚΑΙ ΔΙΑ ΤΑΣ ΚΥΡΙΑΚΑΣ και εκτός συνήθους ώρας εργασίας.
3ον/ Ολα τα μεταγωγικά μέσα (άλογα όνοι) καθώς και άμαξαι οφείλουν να τίθενται εις την διάθεσιν των Δημάρχων εις περίπτωσιν απαιτήσεως προς παροχήν εργασίας.
4ον/ Κάθε Κοινότης οφείλει αμέσως να συστήση υπό την οδηγίαν καταλλήλων προσώπων μίαν φάλαγγαν εργασίας διά την εκτέλεσιν επειγουσών εργασιών ούτως ώστε εντός 3 ωρών να είναι εις θέσιν να εργασθή. Συνέχεια

Falling back in Greece


British forces in Libya had been weakened because so many troops had been diverted to support the Greeks. The German invasion of Greece, also to support their Italian allies, was progressing quickly. The simultaneous invasion of Yugoslavia enabled them to outflank the Greek and British forces. Captain K.M. Oliphant was with the 2/3 Field Regiment of the Royal Artillery high in the Greek mountains, which he described as ‘making the highlands of Scotland look like a plain’. His personal diary did not manage to keep track of individual days during this period:

News comes that the position on our flanks is not good – we are to withdraw to a stronger line – we are still confident. The withdrawal takes place under cover of the darkness, and we take up our new positions.

It is still snowing. The Germans move down and attack again – here they employ the full weight of their Air Force against us – we suffer their dive bombing and machine gunning and await the arrival of the R.A.F. – we are still confident. Day after day the German Air force bomb and machine gun us – a terrible experience – where is the R.A.F? surely there has been no mismanagement – our confidence is shaken – as we suffer every morning and every evening these terrifying raids – we reach the stage where we long for night and quietness – all day is a nightmare, and the hours of daylight are so long.

No British are in the sky – what has gone wrong?. Men begin to ask ‘Are we to be sacrificed to the German Air Force?’

On land we hurl their attacks back in spite of their overwhelming numbers – but we can’t hold on against their Air Force. One morning three bombs landed not twenty yards from the hole we were crouching in, covering us with filth, my tent was torn in three places by jagged pieces of bomb splinters. Forty yards from my tent a huge bomb tore a hole in the ground twenty feet deep and seventy feet wide. After dropping their bombs they fly low and machine-gun us because we have no planes to chase them-off – the sky is THEIRS.

News comes of a further withdrawal – we ask what has happened – surely not another Dunkirk; – our Unit is allotted the rearguard role – we stand and fight to cover the withdrawal of the rest of the force.

SOURCE: ww2today.com

Battle of Crete 20 May 1941


Date 20 May – 1 June 1941
Location Crete, Greece
Result German Pyrrhic Victory[1][2][3]
Belligerents
 United Kingdom
 Greece
 Australia
 New Zealand
 Germany
 Italy
Commanders and leaders
New Zealand Bernard Freyberg Nazi Germany Kurt Student
Strength
United Kingdom: 15,000
Greece: 11,451[4]
Australia: 7,100
New Zealand: 6,700
Total: 40,000 (10,000 without fighting capacity)[5]
Germany:
14,000[citation needed] paratroopers
15,000[citation needed] mountain troopers
280 bombers
150 dive bombers
180 fighters
500 transports
80 troop gliders
Italy: 2,700
Casualties and losses
Total:  23,830
3,990 dead
2,750 wounded
17,090 captured
Total: 6,698
370 aircraft destroyed or damaged
1Total Greek casualties amounted to 1,250 killed and wounded

The Battle of Crete (German: Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta; Greek: Μάχη της Κρήτης) was a battle during World War II on the Greek island of Crete. It began on the morning of 20 May 1941, when Nazi Germany launched an airborne invasion of Crete under the code-name Unternehmen Merkur (“Operation Mercury“). Greek and Allied forces, along with Cretan civilians, defended the island.

After one day of fighting, the Germans had suffered very heavy casualties, and the Allied troops were confident that they would prevail against the German invasion. The next day, through miscommunication and the failure of Allied commanders to grasp the situation, Maleme airfield in western Crete fell to the Germans, enabling them to fly in reinforcements and overwhelm the defenders. The battle lasted about 10 days.

The Battle of Crete was unprecedented in three respects: it was not only the first battle where the German paratroops (Fallschirmjäger) were used on a massive scale, but also the first mainly airborne invasion in military history;the first time the Allies made significant use of intelligence from the deciphered German Enigma code; and the first time invading German troops encountered mass resistance from a civilian population. Because of the heavy casualties suffered by the paratroopers, Adolf Hitler forbade further large-scale airborne operations. However, the Allies were impressed by the potential of paratroopers and started to build their own airborne divisions.

Prelude

Allied forces had occupied Crete when the Italians attacked Greece on 28 October 1940. Though the Italians were initially repulsed, subsequent German intervention drove 57,000 Allied troops from the mainland. The Royal Navy evacuated many of them; some were taken to Crete to bolster its garrison.

Possession of Crete provided the Royal Navy with excellent harbours in the eastern Mediterranean, from which it could threaten the Axis southeastern flank.From the island, the Ploieşti oil fields in Romania, which were critical to the Axis war effort, were within range of British bombers. Given its strategic value, Winston Churchill would later quote a telegram he sent to the Chief of the Imperial General Staff on 4 June 1940: “To lose Crete because we had not sufficient bulk of forces there would be a crime.”

The German army high command was preoccupied with the planned invasion of the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa), and was against involvement. However, senior Luftwaffe commanders were enthusiastic about the idea of seizing Crete by a daring airborne attack. The desire to regain prestige after their defeat by the Royal Air Force over Britain in 1940 may have played a role in their thinking, especially before the advent of the much more important (and army-controlled) invasion of Russia.Hitler was won over by the audacious proposal, though the directive stated that the operation was to be in May. The secondary priority of the attack was underlined: Crete was under no circumstances to be allowed to interfere with the upcoming campaign against the Soviet Union.[16] In advance of the land battle, the Germans launched frequent bombing raids against the island in order to establish air superiority. This air campaign eventually succeeded in its objective, forcing the Royal Air Force to move its planes to Alexandria.

At the outset of the land battle, the Allies had the advantage of naval supremacy and defending with relative numerical superiority, while the Germans had air superiority, more highly trained troops, and the momentum of an unbroken run of victories.

Order of battle

For more details on this topic, see Battle of Crete order of battle.
File:Lieutenant General Freyberg gazes over the parapet.jpg

Major-General Freyberg, Allied Commander at the Battle of Crete

 

Allied forces

On 30 April 1941, a New Zealand Army officer, Major-General Bernard Freyberg VC was appointed commander of the Allied forces on Crete.

By May, the Greek forces consisted of approximately 9,000 troops: three battalions of the 5th Division of the Hellenic Army, which had been left behind when the rest of the unit had been transferred to the mainland to oppose the German invasion; the Cretan Gendarmerie (a battalion-sized force); the Heraklion Garrison Battalion, a defence battalion made up mostly of transport and logistics personnel; and remnants of the 12th and 20th Hellenic Army divisions, which had escaped to Crete and were organised under British command. There were also cadets from the Gendarmerie academy and recruits from the Greek training centres in the Peloponnese, who had been transferred to Crete to replace the trained soldiers sent to fight on the mainland. These troops were already organised into numbered recruit training regiments, and it was decided to use this existing configuration to organise the Greek troops, supplementing them with experienced men arriving from the mainland.

The British Commonwealth contingent consisted of the original 14,000-man British garrison and another 25,000 Commonwealth troops evacuated from the mainland. The evacuees were the typical mix found in any contested evacuation—substantially intact units under their own command, composite units hurriedly brought together by leaders on the spot, stragglers without leaders from every type of unit possessed by an army, and deserters. Most of these men lacked heavy equipment. The key formed units were the New Zealand 2nd Division, less the 6th Brigade and division headquarters; the Australian 19th Brigade Group; and the British 14th Infantry Brigade. In total, there were roughly 15,000 combat-ready British Commonwealth infantry, augmented by about 5,000 non-infantry personnel equipped as infantry, and one composite Australian artillery battery. On 4 May, Freyberg sent a message to the British commander in the Middle East, General Archibald Wavell, requesting the evacuation of about 10,000 personnel who did not have weapons and had “little or no employment other than getting into trouble with the civil population”.However, few of these men had left Crete by the time the battle started.

Axis forces

File:Bundesarchiv Bild 141-0816, Kreta, Lastensegler DFS 230, Fallschirmjäger.jpg

A Fallschirmjäger and a DFS 230 glider in Crete.

On 25 April, Hitler signed Directive Number 28, ordering the invasion of Crete. The Royal Navy’s forces from Alexandria retained control of the waters around Crete, so any amphibious assault would be quickly decided by the nature of an air-versus-ship battle, making it a risky proposition at best. With German air superiority a given, an airborne invasion was decided on.

This was to be the first truly large-scale airborne invasion, although the Germans had used parachute and glider-borne assaults on a much smaller scale in the invasions of Denmark and Norway, Belgium, the Netherlands, France and mainland Greece. In the last instance, German paratroops (Fallschirmjäger) had been dispatched to capture the bridge over the Corinth Canal which was being readied for demolition by the Royal Engineers. German engineers were landed near the bridge in gliders, while parachute infantry attacked the perimeter defence.

File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-L19017, Gebirgsjäger vor dem Start nach Kreta.jpg

Mountain troops prior to their transfer to Crete

Mountain troops prior to their transfer to Crete

The bridge was damaged in the fighting, which slowed the German advance and gave the Allies time to evacuate 18,000 troops to Crete and an additional 23,000 to Egypt, albeit with the loss of most of their heavy equipment.

The intention was to use Fallschirmjäger to capture key points of the island, including airfields that could then be used to fly in supplies and reinforcements. The XI Fliegerkorps was to co-ordinate the attack by the 7th Flieger Division, which would insert its paratroopers by parachute and glider, followed by the 22nd Air Landing Division once the airfields were secure. The assault was initially scheduled for 16 May, but was postponed to 20 May, with the 5th Mountain Division replacing the 22nd Division.

Intelligence

British

By this time, Allied commanders had become aware of the imminent invasion through Ultra intercepts. General Freyberg was informed of the air component of the German battle plan, and started to prepare a defence based near the airfields and along the north coast. However, he was seriously hampered by a lack of modern equipment, and was faced with the reality that even lightly armed paratroopers would be able to muster about the same firepower as his own men, if not more. In addition, although the Ultra-derived intelligence that Freyberg received was very detailed, it was taken out of context and misinterpreted.  While emphasis was placed on the airborne assault the German messages mentioned seaborne operations, which seriously affected Freyberg’s troop deployment, as he expected an amphibious landing, consequently detracting from the defence of the main German objective of the Maleme airfield.

German

File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-L19017, Gebirgsjäger vor dem Start nach Kreta.jpg

Alexander Löhr and Wolfram von Richthofen (1942)

Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, chief of the German Abwehr, originally reported a mere 5,000 British troops on Crete and no Greek forces. It is not clear whether Canaris, who had an extensive intelligence network at his disposal, was misinformed or was attempting to sabotage Hitler’s plans (Canaris would be executed much later in the war for supposedly participating in the 20 July Plot). The Abwehr also predicted the Cretan population would welcome the Germans as liberators, due to their strong republican and anti-monarchist feelings, and would want to receive the “…favourable terms which had been arranged on the mainland…”[22] While it is true the late republican prime minister of Greece, Eleftherios Venizelos, had been a Cretan, and support for his ideas was strong on the island, the Germans seriously underestimated the depth of patriotic feeling on the part of the Cretans. In fact, King George II of Greece and his entourage escaped from Greece via Crete with the help of Greek and Commonwealth soldiers, Cretan civilians, and even a band of prisoners that had been released from captivity by the advancing Germans (see below).

German Twelfth Army Intelligence painted a less optimistic picture, but still believed the British Commonwealth forces to be much weaker than they actually were, and also underestimated the number of Greek troops who had been evacuated from the mainland. General Alexander Löhr, the theatre commander, was convinced the island could be taken with two divisions, but decided to keep 6th Mountain Division in Athens as a reserve. Events would prove this to have been a wise precaution.

http://www.explorecrete.com/history/battle-crete-chronicle.htm

Weapons

German

https://i1.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b9/Kreta_Cuffband.jpg/800px-Kreta_Cuffband.jpg

Wehrmacht cuff title (German: ärmelband) for the Crete campaign

The Germans deployed a new weapon on Crete: the 7.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 40 “light gun” (actually a recoilless rifle). At 320 lb (150 kg), it weighed only 110 as much as a standard German 75 mm field gun, yet had ⅔ of its range. It fired a 13 lb (5.9 kg) shell over 3 mi (4.8 km). Adding to the airborne units’ firepower was the fact that ¼ of them jumped with a MP 40 submachine gun, often carried in addition to a bolt-action Karabiner 98k rifle. Moreover, almost every German squad was equipped with an MG 34 machine gun.

The Germans used colour-coded parachutes to distinguish the canisters carrying rifles, ammunition, crew-served weapons and other supplies. Heavy equipment like the Leichtgeschütz 40 was dropped with a special triple-parachute harness designed to bear the extra weight.

The troopers also carried special strips of cloth which could be unfurled in pre-arranged patterns to signal low-flying fighters to coordinate air support and supply drops.

In contrast with most nations’ forces, who jumped with personal weapons strapped to their bodies, German procedure was for individual weapons to be dropped in canisters, due to their style of exiting the aircraft at low altitude. This was a major flaw that left the paratroopers armed only with their fighting knives, pistols and grenades in the critical few minutes after landing. The poor design of German parachutes compounded the problem: the standard German harness had only a single riser to the canopy, and thus could not be steered. Even the 25% of paratroops armed with submachine guns were at a distinct disadvantage, given the weapon’s limited range. Many Fallschirmjäger were shot attempting to reach their weapons canisters.

Greek Army World War 2

Soldiers of Crete and Greece World War 2

After successive meetings, the Germans decide on the occupation of Crete. The transport of Greek and British forces from mainland Greece is scheduled for the second fortnight of April.
The Greek government resorts to Crete.http://www.explorecrete.com/history/battle-crete-chronicle.htm

Further information: Fallschirmjäger (World War II)

Greek

Greek troops were armed with the Mannlicher-Schönauer 6.5 mm mountain carbine or ex-Austrian 8x56R Steyr-Mannlicher M1895 rifles, the latter part of post–World War I reparations. About one thousand Greeks carried the antique Gras rifle. The garrison had been stripped of its best crew-served weapons, which were sent to the mainland. There were twelve obsolescent Saint Etienne light machine guns and forty other light machine guns of various manufacture at the Greek troops’ disposal. Many of the Greek troops had less than thirty rounds of ammunition, and could not be resupplied by the British, who had no stocks in the correct calibres. This affected their placement in the battle; those with insufficient ammunition were posted to the island’s eastern sector, where the Germans were not expected in force. The Greeks made up for the lack of equipment with intensity of spirit; historian Christopher Buckley stated that “…some fought with extreme courage and tenacity.”

British Commonwealth

British Commonwealth troops used their standard Lee-Enfield rifle, Bren light machine gun and Vickers medium machine gun. The Allies had about 85 artillery pieces of various calibres, many of them captured Italian pieces without sights.[25]

Anti-aircraft defences consisted of one light anti-aircraft battery equipped with 20 mm automatic cannon, split between the two airfields. The guns were carefully concealed, often in nearby olive groves, and some were ordered to hold their fire during the initial assault so that they would not immediately reveal their positions to German fighters and dive-bombers.

German army World War 2

APRIL25, 1941 Landing in Crete of the New Zealand allies.http://www.explorecrete.com/history/battle-crete-chronicle.htm

Allied armour consisted of nine Matilda IIA infantry tanks, belonging to “B” Squadron, 7th Royal Tank Regiment, and sixteen Mark VIB Light Tanks from “C” Squadron, 4th Queen’s Own Hussars. In common with most British tank units at the time, the Matildas’ 2-pounder (40 mm) guns had only armour piercing rounds which were not effective against infantry (high explosive rounds in such a small calibre were considered impractical).

The tanks had numerous maintenance problems. The engines, especially, were worn and could not be overhauled with the limited resources available on Crete. Most of the tanks were therefore used as mobile pillboxes to be brought up and dug in at strategic points. One of the Matildas had a damaged turret crank that allowed it to turn clockwise only. In the end, many of the British tanks were lost to the rough terrain, not in combat.

The Allies did not possess sufficient Universal Carriers or trucks, which would have provided the extra mobility and firepower needed for rapid-response teams to attack paratrooper units before they had a chance to dig in.

Strategy and tactics

Operation Mercury

File:German assault on Crete.jpg

Map of the German assault on Crete

 

Hitler’s directive authorising the operation, Directive Number 28, made it very clear that the forces used were primarily airborne and air units already in the area. Further, units committed for the attack on Crete but earmarked for Barbarossa were to conclude operations before the end of May at the latest. Barbarossa was not to be delayed by the attack on Crete. This meant that the planned attack had to be launched within the allotted period or else it would be cancelled. Planning had to be rushed, and much of the German operation would be improvised, including the use of troops who were not trained for airborne assaults.

APRIL 28, 1941 The Prime Minister of Greece, Mr. Tsouderos, chairs a meeting at Chania between the leaders of the Greek forces and British officers. The meeting concluded with the issue of a reinforcement request to strengthen the defense of the island.

Allied troops arrive to Crete

Allied troops arrive to Crete for the Battle of Crete

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Though the German planners agreed on the necessity of taking Maleme, there was some debate over the concentration of forces there and the number to be deployed against other targets, such as the smaller airfields at Heraklion and Rethymnon. The Luftwaffe commander, General Alexander Löhr, and the naval commander, Counter Admiral Karl-Georg Schuster, favoured a heavier concentration against Maleme, to achieve overwhelming superiority of force. By contrast, Major-General Kurt von Student wanted to disperse his paratroops more widely, in order to maximise the effect of surprise. As a primary objective, Maleme offered several advantages: it was the largest airfield, capable of supporting heavy transports bearing reinforcements; it was near enough to the mainland to allow air cover from land-based Bf 109 fighters; and it was near the northern coast, so seaborne reinforcements could be brought up quickly.

A compromise plan by Hermann Göring was agreed and the final plan heavily emphasised securing Maleme first, while not ignoring the other Allied assets.[31] It was codenamed Merkur, after the swift Roman god Mercury. German forces were divided into three battle groups, Centre, West and East, each with a special code name following the classical theme established by Mercury. A total of 750 glider troops, 10,000 paratroops, 5,000 airlifted mountain troops, and 7,000 seaborne troops were allotted for the invasion. The largest proportion of the forces were in Group West.

Operation Mercury battle groups
Group name Mythical codename Commander Target
Gruppe Mitte (Group Centre) Mars Major General Wilhelm Süssman Prison Valley, Chania Souda, Rethymnon
Gruppe West (Group West) Comet Major General Eugen Meindl Maleme
Gruppe Ost (Group East) Orion Colonel Bruno Bräuer Heraklion

German airborne doctrine was based primarily on parachuting in a small number of forces directly on top of enemy airfields. This force would capture the perimeter and any local anti-aircraft guns, allowing a much larger force to land by glider.

Freyberg was aware of this after studying German actions of the past year, and decided to render the airfields unusable for landing. However, he was countermanded by the Middle East Command in Alexandria.[34] They felt the invasion was doomed to fail now that they knew about it, and possibly wanted to keep the airfields intact for the RAF’s return once the island was secure, in what is held by some to have been a fatal error.[35] It is not clear whether this is the case, for the Germans proved they were able to land reinforcements without fully functioning airfields. One German pilot crash-landed his transport on a deserted beach; others landed in empty fields, discharged their cargo and took off again. With the Germans willing to sacrifice some of their numerous transport aircraft to win the battle, it is not clear whether a decision to destroy the airfields would have made any difference to the final outcome, particularly given the number of troops delivered by expendable gliders.

Allied troops prepare the defense of Crete

APRIL 29, 1941 The commander of the Hew Zealand Division, General Prey Berg, arrives in Crete.http://www.explorecrete.com/history/battle-crete-chronicle.htm

Day one, 20 May

File:German prisoners under British guard.jpg

Captured German paratroopers under British guard

 

Maleme-Chania sector

At 08:00 on 20 May, German paratroopers, jumping out of dozens of Junkers Ju 52 aircraft, landed near Maleme airfield and the town of Chania. The 21st, 22nd, and 23rd New Zealand Battalions defended Maleme airfield and its direct surrounding area. The Germans suffered heavy casualties within the first hours of the invasion. One company of the III Battalion, 1st Assault Regiment, lost 112 killed out of 126 men; 400 of the battalion’s 600 men were killed before the end of the first day.

German army prepares to invade Crete

MAY 20, 1941 German attack on Crete begins at 6:3O a.m. The Germans subject the towns of Chania, Rethymnon and Heraklion to severe bombardment prior to dropping their elite parachutists. Local confrontations take place between German paratroopers and allied forces reinforced by the local population.http://www.explorecrete.com/history/battle-crete-chronicle.htm

Of the initial forces, the majority were mauled by New Zealand forces defending the airfield and Greek forces near Chania. Many of the gliders following the paratroops were hit by mortar fire within seconds after landing. Those glider troops that did land safely were wiped out almost to the last man by the New Zealand and Greek defenders.

A number of German paratroopers and gliders had landed off-site near both airfields by accident, as is common in airdrops, and set up defensive positions to the west of Maleme airfield, and “Prison Valley” in the Chania area. Although both forces were bottled up and failed to take the airfields, they were in place and the defenders had to deploy to face them.

Greek police forces and cadets were also in action, with the First Greek Regiment (Provisional) combining with civilians to rout a detachment of German paratroopers dropped at Kastelli. Meanwhile, the 8th Greek Regiment and elements of the Cretan forces severely hampered movement by the 95th Reconnaissance Battalion on Kolimbari and Paleochora, wFile:Paratroopers Crete '41.JPG

here Allied reinforcements from North Africa could potentially be landed.

Battle of Crete
MAY 21, 1941 The German concentrate their attack on Maleme airfield. German airfield land at Maleme in the evening carrying significant forces and material for the attack. The British fleet in the Mediterranean strikes a German convoy heading for Crete. Fifteen requisitioned vessels were sunk; their losses are still unknown http://www.explorecrete.com/history/battle-crete-chronicle.htm

More German paratroops landing on Crete, dropped from Junkers 52 transports, 20 May 1941. Taken by a British combat photographer, the photo was edited for propaganda purposes to show a black smoke trail from a damaged Ju 52. Several were indeed lost by anti-aircraft fire during the airdrops but none were hit at the time this photo was taken

Rethimnon-Heraklion sector

For more details on this topic, see Battle of Rethymno.

A second wave of German aircraft arrived in the afternoon dropping more paratroopers along with several more gliders containing heavy assault troops, with one group attacking Rethimnon at 16:15 and another at Heraklion at 17:30. As with the earlier actions, the defenders were waiting for them and inflicted heavy casualties.

Battle of Crete

MAY 24, 1941 The bombardment of the towns of Crete goes on. At Chania, the Germans gained the initiative. The allied forces at Rethymnon and Heraklion are determined “to fight to the end”.http://www.explorecrete.com/history/battle-crete-chronicle.htm

Heraklion was defended by the British 14th Infantry Brigade, augmented by the Australian 2/4th Battalion and the Greek 3rd, 7th and “Garrison” (ex-5th “Crete” Division”) Battalions. The Greek units were sorely lacking in equipment and supplies, the Garrison Battalion especially, as the bulk of its matériel had been shipped to the mainland with the division, but they would fight with distinction nonetheless.

The Germans pierced the defensive cordon around Heraklion on the first day, seizing the Greek barracks on the west edge of the town and capturing the docks; the Greeks counterattacked and recaptured both points. The Germans dropped leaflets urging surrender and threatening dire consequences if the Allies did not surrender immediately. The next day, Heraklion was heavily bombed. The battered Greek units were rotated out and assumed a defensive position on the road to Knossos.

Battle of Crete

By May 31st the total occupation of Crete was a fact and the withdrawal of the majority of the ally forces to Egypt marked the end of the Battle of Crete.http://www.explorecrete.com/history/battle-crete-chronicle.htm

As night fell, none of the German objectives had been secured. Of the 493 German transport aircraft used during the first day’s airdrop, seven were lost to antiaircraft fire. The risky plan—attacking four separate points to maximize surprise rather than concentrating on one—seemed to have failed, although the reasons were unknown to the Germans at the time.

Towards the evening of 20 May, the Germans slowly pushed the New Zealanders back from Hill 107, which overlooked the airfield. The Axis commanders on Crete decided to throw everything into the Maleme sector the next day.

Among the paratroopers who landed on the first day was former world heavyweight champion boxer Max Schmeling, who held the rank of Gefreiter at the time. Schmeling survived the battle and the war.

Civilian uprising

File:Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-166-0527-22, Kreta, toter Fallschirmjäger.jpg

Dead paratrooper, Crete, 1941

 

File:Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-166-0527-04, Kreta, Kondomari, Erschießung von Zivilisten.jpg

Executed Cretan civilians at Kondomari, Crete, 1941

 

Everywhere on the island, Cretan civilians – men, women, children, priests, monks, and even nuns, armed and otherwise – joined the battle with whatever weapons were at hand. In some cases, ancient matchlock rifles which had last been used against the Turks were dug up from their hiding places and pressed into action. In other cases, civilians went into action armed only with what they could gather from their kitchens or barns, and several German parachutists were knifed or clubbed to death in the olive groves that dotted the island. In one recorded case, an elderly Cretan man clubbed a parachutist to death with his walking stick before the German could disentangle himself from his parachute lines. In another, a priest and his son broke into a village museum and took two rifles from the era of the Balkan Wars and sniped at German paratroops at one of the landing zones. While the priest would aim and shoot at German paratroopers with one rifle, his son would re-load the other. The Cretans soon supplemented their makeshift weapons with captured German small arms taken from the dead bodies of killed paratroops and glider troops. Their actions were not limited to harassment—civilians also played a significant role in the Greek counter-attacks at Kastelli Hill and Paleochora, and the British and New Zealand advisors at these locations were hard pressed to prevent massacres. Civilian action also checked the Germans to the north and west of Heraklion, and in the town centre itself.

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This was the first occasion in the war that the Germans encountered widespread and unrestrained resistance from a civilian population, and for a period of time, it unbalanced them. However, once they had recovered from their shock, the German paratroopers reacted with equal ferocity, killing many Cretan civilians. Further, as most Cretan partisans wore no uniforms or identifying insignia such as armbands, the Germans felt free of all of the constraints implied by the Geneva conventions and killed both armed and unarmed civilians indiscriminately. In his book The Lost Battle, MacDonald argues that battlefield mutilations (attributed to the torture of injured Germans by civilians and vice versa) were more than likely a result of carrion birds and physical decay of corpses left in the extreme heat.

The escape of the king

The majority of Cretans were Venizelist Republicans—as were a significant number of mainland Greeks. In 1924, George II, King of the Hellenes had been deposed and exiled to Romania, only to return in 1935 after the collapse of republican government. The Germans regarded George as a hopeless Anglophile and an obstacle to their conquest of Greece, which they believed to be mostly anti-monarchist. After the king had escaped to Crete on 22 April and issued a defiant memorandum to the Germans, Hitler responded by attacking the king in a speech on 4 May. The British feared a propaganda coup if a sovereign monarch under their protection were to be captured.

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The king was staying in a Venetian villa, Bella Capina, two miles southwest of Chania. Warned by British intelligence of the coming airborne invasion, he left for the house of Emmanouil Tsouderos, the prime minister, in a nearby village of Perivolia, on the day before the invasion began, but was forced to flee Perivolia the next morning. His entourage narrowly escaped capture. From the garden of Bella Capina, German paratroopers were seen landing in the area of the villa. As it turned out, they were members of 3rd Battalion, 3rd Parachute Rifle Regiment, which was assigned to the Galatas sector, and had been dropped near the villa by mistake. An evacuation by the Royal Navy had already been arranged, with Colonel J.S. Blunt, the British military attaché to Greece, acting as liaison. A platoon of New Zealand infantry under Lieutenant W.H. Ryan was assigned as a bodyguard, along with a complement of Cretan gendarmes. The king was accompanied by his cousin, Prince Peter; Colonel Dimitrios Levidis, Master of Ceremonies; Prime Minister Tsouderos; and Kyriakos Varvaressos, Governor-in-Exile of the Bank of Greece.

The party had several close calls with both Germans and native

http://greekodyssey.typepad.com/my_greek_odyssey/2006/11/the_battle_of_c_2.html

Cretans. A detachment was sent back for some papers left behind by Mr. Tsouderos; they returned to report the house was already occupied, meaning the Germans were by now aware of the king’s presence nearby. Lieutenant Ryan had the king remove his Greek general’s uniform, which was adorned with gold braid and other ornaments that were bound to attract attention. At one point, the group were pinned down by the rifle fire of Cretan mountaineers. Prince Peter shouted to them in Greek, and they replied “Germans also speak Greek and wear Greek uniforms”. Eventually convinced that the royal retinue were not German spies, they let them pass. That night, the evacuees rested in the village of Therisso. There, they were startled by a clamour at the doors, which turned out to caused by prison escapees released earlier in the day. Patriotism apparently overwhelmed any sympathy for their German emancipators and antipathy to the monarchist constitution, and the escapees left to forage for weapons instead of betraying their fellow fugitives.

Though forced to abandon their pack mules, and lacking proper clothing and equipment for mountain climbing, the entourage arrived safely at their rendezvous point. There, joined by members of the British diplomatic corps, they signalled HMS Decoy and were plucked from the shore, arriving in Alexandria on the night of 22 May.

Day two, 21 May

http://greekodyssey.typepad.com/my_greek_odyssey/2006/11/the_battle_of_c_2.html

Overnight, the New Zealand 22nd Infantry Battalion withdrew from Hill 107, leaving the Maleme airfield undefended. During the previous day the Germans had succeeded in cutting off communications between the two western-most companies of the battalion and the battalion commander, Lt Col Andrews, who was on the east of the airfield. Andrews mistakenly interpreted the lack of communication as meaning his battalion had been overrun in the west. With the weakened state of the eastern elements of the battalion, and believing the western elements to have been overrun, Andrews requested reinforcement by the 23rd Battalion. This was denied by his superior, Brigadier James Hargest, on the grounds that the 23rd Battalion were fully committed repulsing parachutists in their sector. After a failed attempt at a counter-attack late in the day of the 20th with the eastern elements of his battalion, Andrews withdrew under cover of darkness to regroup, with the consent of Hargest. Captain Campbell, commanding the western-most company of the 22nd Battalion, out of contact with Andrews, did not learn of the withdrawal of the 22nd Battalion until early in the morning, at which point he also withdrew from the west of the airfield. This misunderstanding, representative of failings of communication and coordination in the Allied defense of Crete , cost the allies the airfield, and allowed the Germans to reinforce their invasion force unopposed. In Athens, General Kurt Student decided to concentrate his forces on Maleme on the 21st, as this was the area where the most progress had been made on the first day,and due to an early morning reconnaissance flight over the Maleme airfield that was unopposed by defending forces.. The Germans quickly exploited the withdrawal from Hill 107 to take control of the Maleme airfield, just as a sea landing took place nearby. The allies continued to pour artillery fire into the area as Junkers Ju 52 transport aircraft started flying in units of the 5th Mountain Division at night. These troops moved into the line as soon as their planes landed, many of which were hit by artillery fire and littered the airfield. The Germans now had a foothold on Crete.

File:Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-166-0508-31, Kreta, Vormarsch deutscher Fallschirmjäger.jpg

Crete: Attacking Fallschirmjägers

 

Failure to recapture Maleme

The New Zealand commander of Creforce, Major General Bernard Freyburg, realized that the Maleme airfield was key to the battle, and ordered an overnight counter-attack to retake the airfield on the night of the 21st. This decision was reached in the afternoon of the 21st, and relied on the 2/7th Battalion moving 18 miles north to relieve the 20th Battalion, who would participate in the attack. The 2/7th Battalion did not have its own transport, and getting transport to the Battalion was delayed due to the Luftwaffe air superiority in daylight hours. By the time the 2/7th Battalion had its transport and moved north to relieve 20th Battalion for the counter-attack, it was 11:30pm. The 20th Battalion then took 3 hours to reach the staging area for the counter-attack, its first elements arriving around 2:45 AM.The counter-attack was launched at 3:30am, and failed due to German air support by the Luftwaffe during daylight hours.

First landing attempt

Before midnight, Rear-Admiral Irvine Glennie‘s Force D, consisting of three light cruisers and four destroyers, intercepted a flotilla of reinforcements, escorted by a single Italian torpedo boat, the Lupo, successfully preventing their landing. The convoy, comprising around 20 caïques, was fiercely defended by the Italian ship. About 2/3 the 2000+ strong German force was saved due to the aggressive manouvres of the Italian naval commander, Francesco Mimbelli, against an overwhelmingly superior Allied naval force. About 800 German soldiers and two Italian seamen died in action, as well as two British sailors on HMS Orion.

Προκύρηξη Ιταλού Διοικητή προς κατοίκους Σάμου, 8-5-1941


ΑΝΩΤΑΤΗ ΔΙΟΙΚΗΣΙΣ

ΕΝΟΠΛΩΝ ΔΥΝΑΜΕΩΝ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ

8 ΜΑΙΟΥ 1941(19ον)

ΠΡΟΚΗΡΥΞΙΣ ΠΡΟΣ ΤΟΥΣ ΚΑΤΟΙΚΟΥΣ ΤΗΣ ΝΗΣΟΥ ΣΑΜΟΥ

Αι ΄Ενοπλοι Δυνάμεις της νικηφόρου Ιταλίας καταλαμβάνουσι σήμερον την Νήσον σας.

Αι ανάγκαι του πολέμου σας επιβάλλουσιν απόλυτον υπακοήν προς τας Ιταλικάς Αρχάς δεδομένου ότι έρχονται προς υμάς με ειρηνικάς διαθέσεις.

Οι νόμοι σας εξακολουθούν να ισχύουν.

Η τιμή και το οικογενειακόν δίκαιον, η ζωή των ατόμων και η ιδιωτική περιουσία, η θρησκευτική πίστις και η εξάσκησις των θρησκειών θα τύχωσι της προστασίας των νόμων.

Αι πολιτικαί Αρχαι και Πολιτικοί υπάλληλοι παραμένουσιν εις την εξάσκησιν των καθηκόντων των.

Πάντες καλείσθε να παραδώσητε τα όπλα και να απέχητε από κάθε πράξιν υπέρ των εχθρών της Ιταλίας.

Ο σεβασμός της Χώρας μου προςτους νόμους και τα έθιμα του πολέμου, γνωστότατος ανά τον πεπολιτισμένον κόσμον, μου δίδει το δικαίωμα να αναμένω από έκαστον εξ υμών πρόθυμον και ειλικρινή υπακοήν. Μία διαφορετική εκ μέρους σας στάσις θα με εξαναγκάση να εφαρμώσω εναντίον σας αυστηρά μέτρα σύμφωνα με τον στρατιωτικόν νόμον.

 

Ο ΔΙΟΙΚΗΤΗΣ ΤΩΝ ΕΝΟΠΛΩΝ ΔΥΝΑΜΕΩΝ

ΤΩΝ ΙΤΑΛΙΚΩΝ ΝΗΣΩΝ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ

ΣΤΡΑΤΗΓΟΣ ΕΚΤΩΡ ΜΠΑΣΤΙΚΟ

COMANDO SUPERIORE FORZE ARMATE DELL’ EGEO

 

8 MAGGIO 1941 – XIX

 

PROCLAMA AGLI ABITANTI

DELL’ ISOLA DI SAMO

Le Forze Armate dell’ Italia vittoriosa occupano oggi la vostra isola.

Le esigenze della guerra vi impongono obbedienza assoluta nei loro riguardi, ma esse vengone a vio spirito di pase.

Le vostre leggi continuano ad avere vigore.

L’ ovore e i diritti di famiglia, la vita degli individui e la propricta privata, la fede religiosa e l’ esercizio dei culti sovo salvaguardati secovdo le leggi.

Le autorita e i funzionari civili vengono lasciati nello esercizio delle loro funzioni.

Tulli siete invitati a consegnare la armi e ad astenervi da ogni atto a favore dei nemici d’ Italia.

L’ ossequio del mio Paese alle leggi e alle consuetudini di guerra, ben noto al mondo civile, mi da ragione di attendere da ognuno di voi pronta e leale ubbidienza. Un diverso vostro contegno mi cosrtingerebbe ad adottare provvedimenti di rigoresecondo la legge militare.

 

IL GENERALE D’ ARMATA

COMANDANTE DELLA FORZE ARMATE

DELLE ISOLE ITALIANE DELL’ EGEO

ETTORE BASTICO

Ομιλία Χίτλερ μετά τη λήξη της γερμανικής εκστρατείας στα Βαλκάνια, 4-5-1941


Βουλευτές !!

Άνδρες του ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΟΥ Ράΐχσταγκ!

Εις εποχή κατά την οποίαν οι πράξεις αποτελούν το παν, και οι φράσεις έχουν ελαχίστη σημασία, δεν έχω την πρόθεση να εμφανίζομαι ενώπιον υμών, οίτινες εξελέγητε ως αντιπρόσωποι του γερμανικού λαού, παρά μόνον οσάκις παρίσταται απόλυτος ανάγκη.
Αποτάθηκα δια πρώτη φοράν εις υμάς κατά την έκρηξη του πολέμου την στιγμήν κατά την οποίαν είχε ναυαγήσει πλέον χάρις εις την αγγλογαλλική εναντίον της ειρήνης συνομωσία παρά σα προσπάθεια, ήτις θα μας οδηγεί άνευ της παρεμβάσεως αυτής εις συμβιβασμό μετά της Πολωνίας. ΟΙ πλέον ασυνείδητοι άνδρες της εποχής μας, ο( όποιοι παραδέχονται σήμερον ότι είχαν λάβει ήδη από το 1936 την απόφαση να ερημώσουν και να εξουθενώσουν ει δυνατόν δι’ ενός νέου αιματηρού πολέμου το Ράιχ, διότι εύρισκαν ότι τούτο είχε υπέρ το δέον ισχυροποιηθεί δια της ειρηνικής αναδημιουργικής του εργασίας, είχαν τέλος κατορθώσει να βρουν εις την Πολωνία το κράτος εκείνο, όπερ ήταν πρόθυμο να σύρει πρώτον το ξίφος δια τα συμφέροντα και τους σκοπούς των. Όλες οι προσπάθειες μου όπως επιτύχω, ειδικώς με την Αγγλία, τρόπον συνεννοήσεως, ακόμη και μίαν διαρκή και φιλική συνεργασία, ναυαγήσαν ενώπιον της επιθυμίας και της θελήσεως μιας ολιγάριθμου κλίκας, ή Οποία, είτε λόγω μίσους είτε και εκ λόγων οικονομικού συμφέροντος, απέρριψε πάσα γερμανική πρόταση οχυρωμένη όπισθεν της απροκάλυπτου αποφάσεως, όπως διεξαγάγει υπό οιασδήποτε συνθήκες τον πόλεμο. Συνέχεια

The last defence line in Greece


The Germans had established air superiority early in the short Greek campaign, as Captain Oliphant had experienced. As they consolidated their positions German fighters and dive bombers dominated even more.

Percy Parrymore was with the 122/13th Light Anti Aircraft unit in Greece. As the British made their withdrawal from Greece his troop was selected to remain as a rearguard on the last bridge over the Corinth canal. The eight men on his gun were reduced down to six and they were told to watch out for parachutists:

Came the dawn on Saturday, 26th April, along with scores of German fighters with machine guns blazing. The man taking cover alongside me was killed outright and I was wounded in the right hand and arm.

Then the Germans started dropping the parachutists, and it was quite evident that nothing was going to stop them. Eventually there were left only the Sergeant, Alan Ponsford, and myself (bombardier), and deciding the only course of action was to spike the gun, we threw the breech block as far as we could into a corn field.

My right arm was useless, so I told Alan I would crawl through the adjacent corn field to see if I could see any other British troops. On my return after only a few minutes Alan was dead. I had not, of course, seen any British, but found four Germans advancing towards us, at whom Alan had apparently been firing with a Greek rifle; he was just keeled over in a kneeling position. I took his rifle with my remaining hand and took one shot at the advancing Germans. This stopped them, but they started throwing grenades.

Then a very Lancashire accent voice called out ‘Nah then, daft bugger, gie thissen up’. I thought this must be a German who had lived in England, so still dodged a few more grenades. Finally, deciding ‘This is the end’, I stood up, still holding the rifle, and the Germans and I simply stared at each other. They indicated strongly that I should drop the rifle, which I did, and then walked over towards them.

They could not have been kinder, and used their own field dressings to mop up my hand and arm, and I was taken to a field dressing station, which had been dropped by parachute, and where a German doctor showed no discrimintion between German and British wounded.

 

Last ditch stand at Kalamata


British and New Zealand troops in Greece were now making their way to the coast to seek evacuation by the Royal Navy. Many men were got away but when the Germans caught up with them a fierce fight ensued.

It was during this action that New Zealander Jack Hinton won the VC:

On the night of 28/29 April 1941 during fighting in Greece a column of German armoured forces entered Kalamata. This column, which contained several armoured cars, some 2-inch guns and 3-inch mortars and two 6-inch guns, rapidly converged on a large force of British and New Zealand troops awaiting embarkation on the beach.

When an order to retreat to cover was given Sergeant Hinton shouted, ‘To Hell with this, who will come with me’, and ran to within several yards of the nearest guns. The guns fired, missing him, and he hurled two grenades which completely wiped out the crews. He then came on with bayonet followed by a crowd of New Zealanders. German troops abandoned the first 6-inch gun and retreated into two houses. Sergeant Hinton smashed the window and then the door of the first house and dealt with the garrison with bayonet. He repeated the performance in the second house and, as a result until overwhelming German forces arrived, the New Zealander held the guns. Sergeant Hinton then fell with a bullet wound through the lower abdomen and was taken prisoner.

Bill Flint, who was with the 18th Battalion of the 2nd New Zealand Expeditionary Force, was involved with this fighting. He describes how the final surrender came about the following morning:

They were a sandbag sort of wall – a low wall, and they were sheltering behind them, but they were made of filled sandbags. I saw one bloke – I think he was ASC [Army Service Corps] or something-he’d had no training in bayonet, and he stuck his bayonet at a- obviously German who was behind a sanger – but he didn’t know how to pull it out. There’s a knack in it – you’ve got to jerk it and put your foot in. It was desperate. We realised we had to beat these Germans before we could get away. It ended up we all sorted – we had about 70 German prisoners right at the wharf edge, and we fully expected to still go – get out – and then a destroyer just zoomed past. It sort of semi-circled and turned and went away and loud-hailed us: ‘Sorry boys, it’s late. We’ve got to go.’

Not long after that we got – word circulated- word of mouth – that the brigadier, whoever he was, a Pommie, I think, had unconditionally surrendered to the Germans, who had offered him annihilation bombing if he didn’t – didn’t surrender immediately and that was something like 7:30 in the morning. We were to consider ourselves prisoners at 7:30 and in no time flat, the German tanks came in and went right round us in a circle and put swastika flags on top of their tanks and their bombers flew in at just that time and when they saw the flags, they veered off and went away but they were just going to start bombing.

Clash of Armor, The Road to Kozani, 13 April, 1941


In the early afternoon of 13 April, 1941, the main body of the 9th Panzerdivision – the 33rd Panzer Regiment – entered Ptolmais, a town between the villages of Vivi and Kozani. As the Germans began to push south out of Ptolmais, they encountered blown bridges, water-filled anti-tank ditches, swamps, and other rough terrain. German patrols scouted the vicinity of the main road and discovered a way around these obstacles. The German forces were able to swing several miles west around the flank of the Commonwealth forces through a swampy area, but passable enough for vehicles. While under constant artillery, anti-tank and tank fire, 9th Panzer moved slowly through the swampy area. As the Germans moved closer into range, they began returning fire and reportedly knocked out several vehicles. Συνέχεια